Art/Research International: A Transdisciplinary Journal
Volume 5 Issue 1, 2020
Shannon Forrester
Royal College of Art (RCA)
Shannon Forrester is an international artist working in the expanded field of painting and
interdisciplinary practice-led research. Forrester is a PhD candidate at the Royal College of
Art, School of Arts and Humanities in the Fine Art Research Program currently working on
developing reparative-turn theory in painting and practice. Forrester has a BFA from School
of the Art Institute of Chicago, an MFA Painting and Graduate Certificate in Women’s,
Gender, and Sexuality Studies (WGS) from Boston University. Their interdisciplinary work
incorporates painting, curation, and writing at the intersection of WGS, new materialism,
colour philosophy, and cultural studies. Forrester also works in faculty roles in the US and
UK. Shannon’s work and exhibitions in the US, UK, and India have been featured in Two
Coats of Paint, APlus, Hindustan Times, and BostonVoyager. Forrester’s paintings have
been selected for inclusion in exhibitions and galleries of international scope such as
collateral project at Kochi-Muziris Biennale, a solo exhibition at VOLTA NY, and at A.I.R.
Gallery in Brooklyn, NY. Forrester regularly presents new research at a wide array of
academic events in the US, UK, and Europe.
Abstract: Painting from the Other Side, is the curatorial project section of a larger
interdisciplinary practice-led research project titled Embodying the Reparative Turn: Seeking
Agency through Studio Practice in Individual and Collective Contexts that investigates the
potential of the reparative turn in painting, aesthetics, narrative, and curation to subvert,
evade, and exit from dynamics of exclusion linked to homophobia, misogyny, and racism. It
considers how systemic cultural agents propagating exclusion deploy inequity to obstruct
human flourishing, then explores how they are subverted through diverse reparative
practices in painting. Painting from the Other Side included an open call for paintings that
engage with reparative content by artists whose identities are in some way outside of the
minority power position of the Western canon of painting by straight white male artists. It
Painting from the Other Side
Art/Research International: A Transdisciplinary Journal
Volume 5 Issue 1, 2020
included intensive studio visits and culminated in an exhibition. This paper proposes a
theoretical framework of reparative painting and practice, tracing the many paths research-
participant artists followed towards a reparative turn in painting.
Keywords: contemporary painting; feminism; reparative; social justice; curation; hopeful
futurity; human flourishing
Painting from the Other Side
Art/Research International: A Transdisciplinary Journal
Volume 5 Issue 1, 2020
As we critically imagine new ways to think and write about visual art, as we make
spaces for dialog across boundaries, we engage a process of cultural transformation
that will ultimately create a revolution in vision — bell hooks1
The power of visual interventions to produce culture is well known, yet research
examining the affective power (as related to both painter and viewer) of painting within a
specifically reparative framework remains greatly unconsidered. This paper will focus on
Painting from the Other Side, which was the curatorial project section of a larger
interdisciplinary practice-led research project titled Embodying the Reparative Turn: Seeking
Agency through Studio Practice in Individual and Collective Contexts that examines this
question. It investigates the potential of the reparative turn in painting, aesthetics, narrative,
and curation to subvert, evade, and exit from dynamics of exclusion linked to homophobia,
misogyny, and racism. It considers how systemic cultural agents that propagate exclusion
deploy inequity to obstruct human flourishing, then explores how these agents are subverted
through diverse reparative practices in painting. Painting from the Other Side included an
open call for paintings that engage with reparative content by artists whose identities are in
some way outside of the minority power position of the western canon of painting by straight
white male artists. The research included intensive studio visits between the participant
artists who responded to the open call and me in the role of curator as well as researcher
and painter. The studio visits allowed participant artists to discuss their work in depth, and
provided an opportunity to outline the scope of the overall research project in development
and reparative turn theory in painting. The research for Painting from the Other Side was
conducted between fall 2018 and 2019. This paper focuses on presenting reparative turn
theory in painting and tracing the highly diverse paths participant artists explored in the
context of reparative painting. The research process allowed for in depth discussion
between emerging contemporary painters who felt their work in some way intersected with
reparative intention and/or ambition(s), presenting painting within a reparative framework
while tracing its many tributaries, then culminated in an exhibition held 2-7 April, 2019 at
Royal College of Art Dyson Gallery, London, and this paper.
On the Dynamic Reparative Lens
The reparative painting theory proposed here is not about a medium or style; it is a way
of seeing, a way of thinking, an intention, a hunger, and also, in Painting from the Other
Side, an action traced in painting through curating, looking, writing, reading, and making.
Reparative theory can be traced back to some of the psychoanalytic work of Melanie
Klein which influenced
“Paranoid Reading and Reparative Reading” by Eve Kosofsky
Sedgwick.2 The work of these scholars was informative to Reparative Aesthetics by Susan
Best which focused on photography and Cruising Utopia by Jose Estéban Muñoz a book
that explores queer utopia(s).3 These texts inform much of the theoretical framework for both
Embodying the Reparative Turn and Painting from the Other Side.
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Especially since the civil rights movements in the US (e.g. March on Washington in
1963, the Stonewall riot in 1969 and the Equal Rights Amendment Marches in 1972), fields
of identity studies in North America have engaged in expansive analysis of these systems
through critical paranoid-based reading approaches which are often characterized by an aim
to expose the methods and aims of oppression. A reparative turn offers a constructive
action, a re-making-inventing of an empowered-self narrative, an undertaking of a kind of
surgery on wounds inflicted by systemic oppression, producing a hopeful exit from othering’s
shadows in the context of a creative imaginary engaged with the many possible new
existence(s) repair might produce. Halberstam and Nyong’o would refer to the site of the
repaired, or what exists after an exit, as “wildness,” Muñoz would describe it as a queer
utopia, hooks might say that the path to these places is through art.4 Additionally, new
materialist theory offered by Barad, Coole and Frost, and Golding puts forth a new vision of
a materially active dynamic world in infinite interactive becomings and its relationship to the
socio-political realm, offering another wave through which to diffract these ideas of agency
and the ambition to exit.5
The concept of reparative is usually placed in relationship to a paranoid approach,
which in many ways expects the worst so as to avoid surprise (which according to Sedgwick
is assumed to be bad.) Sedgewick offers her framing of the reparative turn in the following
passage which is highly relevant to Painting from the Other Side and specific to the
“sustenance” of reparative dynamics found in culture, even when that culture is hostile and
discriminatory. This passage also references the significant gap in knowledge related to
critical reparative thought especially in feminist and queer theory. Additionally, it offers hope
in terms of how the reparative approach might foster development of new methodologies
and positions that contest dynamics of exclusion:
The vocabulary for articulating any reader’s reparative motive toward a text or a culture
has long been so sappy, aestheticizing, defensive, anti-intellectual, or reactionary that
it’s no wonder few critics are willing to describe their acquaintance with such motives.
The prohibitive problem, however, has been in the limitations of present theoretical
vocabularies rather than in the reparative motive itself. No less acute than a paranoid
position, no less realistic, no less attached to a project of survival, and neither less nor
more delusional or fantasmatic, the reparative reading position undertakes a different
range of affects, ambitions, and risks. What we can best learn from such practices are,
perhaps, the many ways selves and communities succeed in extracting sustenance
from the objects of a culture-even of a culture whose avowed desire has often been not
to sustain them.6 (emphasis mine)
In Reparative Aesthetics Best uses Sedgewick’s concept of reparative and practices as
a lens to analyze the predominant identity politics position in contemporary art describing it
as anti-aesthetic, a reveal of the known, and a “paranoid reading.”7 Best positions reparative
aesthetics in art as something that instead “holds negative and positive together, seeks
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pleasure rather than avoidance of shame as a reparative, and has a capacity to assimilate
“Paranoid Reading and Reparative Reading” Sedgwick explains how Klein’s
psychoanalytic theories inform her paranoid/reparative “reading” practices and in some ways
incorporate depression (as an anxiety mitigating exit from the relentlessness of the paranoid
as well as in its relationship with guilt which is often operated as a possible guard against the
subjects “more destructive influences”) as well as love:9
The greatest interest of Klein’s concept lies, it seems to me in her seeing the paranoid
position always in the oscillatory context of a very different possible one: the depressive
position. For Klein’s infant or adult, the paranoid position - understandably marked by
hatred, envy, and anxiety - is a position of terrible alertness to the dangers posed by
the hateful and envious part - objects that one defensively projects onto, carves out of,
and ingests from the world around one. By contrast, the depressive position is an
anxiety-mitigating achievement that the infant or adult only sometimes and often only
briefly, succeeds in inhabiting: this is the position from which it is possible in turn to use
one’s own resources to assemble or “repair” the murderous part-objects into something
like a whole - though, I would emphasize, not necessarily like any preexisting whole.
Once assembled to one’s own specifications, the more satisfying object is available
both to be identified with and to offer one nourishment and comfort in turn. Among
Klein’s names for the reparative process is love.10
To further examine Klein’s description of depression, in Introduction to Melanie Klein, Segal
explains that
“The pain of mourning experienced in the depressive position, and the
reparative drives developed to restore the loved internal and external objects, are the basis
of creativity and sublimation.”11 So then, it is the desire to repair the pain of the paranoid that
exists in the depressive position which links the reparative and depressive.
The reparative turn is not medium specific, art specific, or genre specific. It is not a
style, a fad, or a dynamic with limited potential. It is a type of reading, not as “reading” per
se, but as in something to experience/see/think/understand/consider through. It is an action,
perhaps a lens for the mind, a reaching desire to repair something and make it better. It
offers a conceptual framework which one can look, think, and in the case of Embodying the
Reparative Turn and Painting from the Other Side, also make through. Critically, the
reparative turn examined here implies a movement towards an exit. An exit through which
issues related to marginalization based on race, gender, and sexuality bias, will find some
aspect of repair as well as an implied, and/or clear, reaching towards something better. For
those drawn to reparative work, their ambition is often driven by a hunger. This hunger is
often linked to a desire to subvert wrongs, heal pain (psychic, emotional, physical,) exact
revenge against and/or express/expose pain related to oppression, generate beauty, peace,
joy and/or something that will improve things for themselves and/or others. The reparative is
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anchored to the subject’s position and (in the case of this project) their personal psycho-
emotional as well as socio-political context, desires, hopes, and experiences.
The reparative functions in multivalent and multifaceted ways. It is always in a relative
encounter with its partner subject(s)/context(s) who, in the case of Painting from the Other
Side, are the artists, the paintings, and/or the audience viewers. So then, the reparative turn
is also a relativity-based dynamic capable of great dexterity, change, and affect that is
defined/produced/experienced by a painting, its creator, and/or it’s audience. The reparative
turn in painting is not a fixed or flat paradigm but a field behaving in ways similar to how
Barad describes quantum field theory (QFT) in Meeting the Universe Halfway “According to
quantum field theory, the vacuum is far from empty; indeed, it's teeming with the full set of
possibilities of what may come to be…”12 We can also trace the primacy of reparative
function/action through the interests of designers in their approach to creating new
technologies that act as automated entities (AI), extensions and/or prosthetics of their
human(s) which can be programmed to serve, control, in some cases replace and/or direct
humans. In a discussion about the ethics of techno scientific practices and AI, Barad offers a
quote by a National Science Foundation officer who was testifying to the US congress as to
the relevance of QFT:
Viewing cells as computational devices will help enable the design of next generation
computers that feature self organization, self repair, and adaptive characteristics that
we see in biological systems. - NSF TESTIMONY TO CONGRESS, March 1, 200013
It is significant that the NSF only offered three characteristics to describe what the next
generation of “quantum computing” computational cellular devices would “feature,” and all of
those qualities are directly related to the structure of reparative artistic praxis as well as
being apparent in biological systems. This is not meant to infer that painting is exactly AI, but
it is a type of intelligence. Reparative painting is self-organized, by the artist who organizes
their concept in a highly adaptive relationship with its context, the material, form, and colour
into a dynamic assemblage output resulting in a painting that has aliveness and affective
reparative impact (see here Isabelle Graw The Love of Painting.)14 Further, Barads concept
of performative discursive practice also speaks to the nature of the dynamic assemblage
that is reparative painting:
A performative understanding of discursive practices challenges the representationalist
belief in the power of words to represent preexisting things. Performativity, properly
construed, is not an invitation to turn everything (including material bodies) into words;
on the contrary, performativity is precisely a contestation of the excessive power
granted to language to determine what is real.15
The reparative turn in painting is far beyond language; it is about repair of self and/or others.
It is highly adaptive, always relative to its maker, context, and viewer.
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By including new materialism in the framework of reparative painting theory as
proposed here, I argue that new materialism itself offers a type of reparative turn. New
materialist scholarship reaches toward a dynamic, responsive, field of being instead of a
binary either/or that has been the predominant (in many ways paranoid reading-based)
structure informing progressive social liberation-oriented theory (especially queer, feminist,
and intersectional theory) for the last few decades. Coole and Frost provide a succinct map
of how new materialist scholars explain the crucialness of considering connections between
politics, nature, and its bodies:
For new materialists, no adequate political theory can ignore the importance of bodies
in situating empirical actors within a material environment of nature, other bodies, and
the socioeconomic structures that dictate where and how they find sustenance, satisfy
their desires, or obtain the resources necessary for participating in political life.16
These ideas of matter and its mattering, of multiplicity, describe how the material world, its
bodies and environments in assemblage, can be considered in new dynamic ways.17 It is
through these ideas from physics related to the dynamics of matter and materiality that the
potential impact of new materialism on reparative painting theory begins to take shape. It
offers a type of ever active relational-relativity framework that seeks to consider dynamics
from the atomic to the socio-political and how the atomic can offer a (new) material case
against paradigms of subjugation. Barad’s conception of nature as itself being filled with
queer imaginings is a clear example of these ideas.18 Critical to painting is Barad’s
foregrounding of the agency of matter: “Matter is an imaginative material exploration of non/
being, creatively regenerative, an ongoing trans*/formation. Matter is a condensation of
dispersed and multiple beings-times, where the future and past are diffracted into now, into
each moment.”19 It is easy to read this passage and think the text could refer to both making
and looking at painting. In “Transmaterialities: Trans*/Matter/Realities and Queer Political
Imaginings,” Barad places the political and cultural dynamics of social liberation, creativity, a
call for an imaginative approach to materiality, considerations about time, all of their
complexities and more on a conceptual dance floor together, turns on the music then sets
them in motion explaining that:
This is an experimental piece with a political investment in creating new political
imaginaries and new understandings of imagining in its materiality. Not imaginaries of
some future or elsewhere to arrive at or be achieved as a political goal but, rather,
imaginaries with material existences…imaginaries that are attuned to the
condensations of past and future condensed into each moment; imaginaries that entail
superpositions of many beings and times, multiple im/possibilities that coexist and are
iteratively intra-actively reconfigured; imaginaries that are material explorations of the
mutual indeterminacies of being and time.20
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Reparative painting, in fact painting itself, is an artform with an essence grounded in
mobilizing particulate, elemental, materials in fatty suspension, into projections of healing,
empowerment, expression, rage, and much more. Painting seems to personify new
materialism in unique and unexpected ways. Perhaps it is its character, so tied to the natural
world (materially, visually, and theoretically,) that makes painting and new materialism close
relations. Surely, it is also the ability of painting to time travel and produce new political
imaginaries through its materiality.
Painting from the Other Side, an Encounter
As research for Embodying the Reparative Turn: Seeking Agency through Studio
Practice in Individual and Collective Contexts progressed, it became clear that discerning
the reparative turn in paintings by other artists using close looking alone was an approach
limited in numerous aspects. Artists thoughts are not transparently elucidated in their entirety
in their final distillation as paintings. Deeper layers of meaning, ideas, and the paths artists
took to arrive at the painting are likely inaccessible (partially or completely) to viewers
through looking alone. Hidden in the creative process of painting are the building blocks that
led up to its creation, this path of formation offers a map to the reparative turn in many of the
works discussed in the following. Additionally, the nature of the visual realm, its creation of
meaning, affect, and content, especially in painting engaged with intense subject matter, is
usually multivalent and complex. What painting and visuality can do conveys meaning and
creates encounters differently than text-based language (it is productive here to again think
of Barad’s thoughts on performative discursive practice), offering a physical/material
experience that lends itself to affective dimensions in different ways than text.21 For
example, that people and paintings exist materially in shared space, offers a significantly
different encounter than engaging with text-based language which exists as sign-based
content (usually) on the flat surface of paper or a screen. Further, I argue (along with
Isabelle Graw) that painting works as not just an object, but also as a subject or as subject
like object/entity.22
This dynamic of intellect and/or subjective aliveness in painting is multifaceted, as the
painting itself is a physical manifestation of the artist’s creation as well as their immaterial
self. Additionally, paintings offer not just a physical presence in their materiality, but also in
the colour-figure-ground-compositional elements that exist on the picture plane. This quote
from Graw about colour brings the aliveness and potential of painting into focus, crediting
the power of colour and its material identity as nature:
Color seems to me to have been predestined for this task thanks to pigment's inherent
relation to nature. Pigments are harvested from nature and thus come with an
immanent aspect of life and self-agency. In addition, the corporeality of pigments, their
connection to the material world, is apt in creating the impression of life.23
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When a painting is seen, these elements of colour, nature, materiality, seem in motion
as they reach toward becoming. As a result, an encounter with painting has great potential to
generate an affective response in viewers and painters alike. Human like, paintings
incorporate the mark of the painter’s hand, raw materials of nature, figures, colour, etc. In
essence, they become a complex human output imbued with matter and its aliveness. In the
framework of this project, the affective dimensions at play in an encounter with painting,
especially in terms of its potential to produce agency as a means of an exit from identity-
based marginalization, are critical to the genesis of a reparative turn. In Visualizing Feeling
Best provides a productive description of the relationship between affective dynamics and
art saying that, “The affective dimension is a feature of both subject and object. Put very
simply, this can be phrased as ‘when a work of art is moving, I am moved’ - affect
permeates the aesthetic encounter.”24
Tracing Reparative Painting in the Studio Wilds25
The curatorial, research-participant artist interviews, and exhibition facets of Painting
from the Other Side were developed to allow the form of the larger practice-led research
(and development of reparative turn theory in painting) to materialize beyond
personal painting practice, expanding it to include conversation with other contemporary
painters. A highly diverse set of approaches to reparative painting were uncovered in the
essays/images submitted during the application process and discovered during the studio
interviews. Each research participant artist pursued different trajectories into the reparative,
ultimately exposing a multitude of previously unimagined productions of reparative painting,
exhibiting the productive ever-in-motion chameleon-like character of this framework. The
connections between the often deeply personal topics this project addressed, the hunger for
repair, the ambition to exit from dynamics of bias, and the profound dynamic relationship
between painter and painting were pivotal to fleshing out the theory of reparative painting
presented here.
The first round of studio visits with research participant artists were completed in
January 2019. Each visit lasted approximately one hour, allowing time for general discussion
regarding the planned overall research process for Painting from the Other Side, explanation
of the exhibition theme, discussion about their applications to the open call, and painting
practices. The concept of reparative painting and how their work might demonstrate a
reparative turn produced interesting as well as productive realizations for both participant
artists and researcher. During the studio visits, many research-participant artists conveyed
both their interest in the idea of reparative painting and their confusion about it. Some
shared their frustration that, in preparation for their application and later the studio visit, their
search for more information about reparative painting provided no answers because there is
no available knowledge about reparative painting theory. This pointed to a clear gap in
knowledge and scholarship in this topic.
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For the research participants who grasped a sense of reparative painting without being
able to find references in painting theory, there were some who expressed their position that
within the context of the canon of Western painting, after so many centuries of exclusion,
just becoming painters and making paintings was reparative in itself. Which of course is true,
because for those who were excluded from art because of their identity, being able to enter
previously forbidden spaces (in this case the space of the painter which in the historical
canon of great Western painters was nearly exclusively a club for straight, white, Christian
men) would surely be one of the first requirements to repair their sense of belonging in the
field of painting. It was, however, those artists who were, not just entering the previously
(nearly) inaccessible space of painting, but those artists whose work additionally grappled
with concepts of reparative painting related to issues of gender, race, and sexuality, that
offered the most interesting contributions to the research.
Their work took many reparative routes; some used aesthetic approaches to subvert
socially inflicted identity-based uglying, others transformed the everyday instruments of
colonial power by taking them into their own hands, wielding them with their own power.
Others appropriated patriarchy’s abjectification of women’s bodies by disempowering toxic
masculinity with male bodies. Through painting, some exposed what they had closeted by
celebrating gay sexuality, using preciousness and gold leaf as indexes of desire which
internalized homophobia had previously forbidden them to express.
Reparative Turn Through Aesthetics and Beauty
The artists included in this section, Kate Bickmore, Shannon Forrester and Jhonatan
Pulido, submitted work that gave significant consideration to aesthetics and beauty as a
feature of their specific reparative turn in painting. Using rich colour and imagery to generate
an affective reparative encounter, the artists, while producing politically charged work, found
beauty a key method to convey those reparative aims. The choice to produce socially
engaged work which is aesthetically beautiful, is not the common approach to political art.
Much like Sedgwick’s theories about the dominance of the paranoid approach to identity
studies, historically, political art has used a similar approach. I would suggest that like
“reparative reading practice,” beauty is thought of as lacking the kind of hard-hitting qualities
required to meaningfully engage with political subject matter of this nature. Whereas, more
“paranoid” approaches committed to exposure and critique of wrongs, seem to excel. Best
suggests that artists using aesthetics and beauty to produce socially engaged art,
…make a radical break with the dominant anti-aesthetic approaches to political art. The
anti-aesthetic tradition privileges critique over aesthetic engagement and rejects the
importance of traditional aesthetic concerns such as beauty, feeling, expression and
judgement. In contrast, these artists use a range of complex aesthetic strategies to
engage audiences with these histories and to temper, at times transform, the feelings
of shame that would normally accompany them.26
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Artist Kate Bickmore27
Five pictures from Bickmore’s current series of floral and foliage paintings exploring
ideas of lesbian desire, the gaze, aesthetics, and asserting her agency in the realm of
painting within the context of patriarchy, were submitted to the open call. Her work also
played on, as well as sought to subvert, the female stereotypes featured in a significant
percentage of paintings in the canon (see muses, nudes, objectified women etc.) The
botanical paintings foregrounded flowers as central figures surrounded by lush foliage
together serving as indexical icons which, combined with the titles of the paintings, conjure
women, their bodies, their desires, troubling how the canon of Western painting has
portrayed and objectified them. Bickmore’s work also intervenes in tradition’s trope of
woman as the flower-object target of male lust/sexuality by usurping its familiar visual
language and replacing the common pedestrian patriarchal lens of heterosexual desire with
lesbian desire.
Figure 1. Kate Bickmore, Climbing Out of Her Sheets, 132 x 152 cm, oil on canvas, 2019
Climbing out of her Sheets has an undeniable reparative power. Its visual position
converges aesthetic beauty, desire, a loving, as well as humorous, ode to lesbian sexuality,
and the vagina (which patriarchy loves to legislate, make invisible, control, render dirty,
dominate, and often abuse.) Western culture teaches women from a young age their bodies
are less than male, that they represent a lacking, an absence, that vaginas are abject,
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unclean. Yet, in Climbing out of Her Sheets, Bickmore offers a lusciously painted rose, an
iconic sign of love, then combines that meaning with the culturally abject vagina and lesbian
sexuality. The effect of this triadic visual move subverts patriarchy’s attempt to disparagingly
define women, their bodies, and their sexuality, placing the positioning power to define
women’s bodies instead with women, in this case with Bickmore, but I would argue also with
the viewer. To see such a visceral physical human aspect and vibrant dedication to lesbian
sexuality, both of which are so commonly marginalized and monsterized in culture, lovingly
revered creates room for a deeply affective, as well as reparative impact, especially for
those afflicted by misogynistic and homophobic bias. Bickmore described this series as
having an aim to “…reinvent a canonized depiction of women and nature by reacting to the
patriarchal constraints imposed upon painting by the male gaze.”28
Artist Shannon Forrester29
Figure 2. Shannon Forrester, Begin, 6 ft h x 45 in w, oil on canvas, 2018
Begin, a painting from my own practice-led artistic research, which in its full form
includes a poetic element, was also exhibited in Painting from the Other Side. The poetic
element was a step outside of painting while still engaged with creating in the context of
transmutation; this step allowed me to additionally explore concept translation into narrative
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and creative text. Findings in these modes of translation became most interesting when a
similar concept was used to make both a painting and a creative text. Surprising synergies
emerged between the three sites of production (concept, painting, creative text).
Begin first entered the research as a painting; it was not until later that I realized it
was connected to an experimental poetic text I subsequently completed. Within the scope of
this research, it was interesting to explore the relationships between these very different
research outputs, especially when artistic research usually commits to spanning both forms.
The poetic element, Begin, follows.
There was no light, dirt (another being) covered the small human figure, a bestowal from
Patriarchy’s Workshop to function as a public broadcast of her shame, her name, her
meaning made embodied, that which is a marker of her abject caste. Built on in layers
with every unfolding year, though she was only about seven, the coating was material,
aural, visceral, and seemingly all powerful, though she could not even see it. A droning,
relentless transmission of psychic and physical excruciation, It enveloped with mercenary
mastery. Its thick-heavy volume weighed upon every flicker of her material and
immaterial being. As a captive of Patriarchy’s Workshop, she was conscripted to carry it
as her outermost layer, her most prominent identifier, this embodied dirt-other had
travelled with her during every moment of her life so far.
To spite constructed appearance, It was not actually of her but on her, a permeable layer
fiction-being-signifier forged with all the ill intent the Workshop could construct. The
immensity of shame, of droning transmissions, began eroding her spirit from the moment
she began to be conscious of the socio-political. That was when it came home to roost,
commencing its parasitical dance of nightmares on her frame. The process began years
before the layers weighing her down were so thick. It is constitutively productive in its
complex and ingenious character. It was a spark born from darkness that allowed her
story to be told, as The Workshop’s corrosive agent was meant to silence her, render her
forever without light. The Workshop didn’t understand the power of no-light, as within it,
the little captive could drift through the immense field of her mind and there she found
truth, escape, seeds, and matches.30
Artist Jhonatan Pulido31
Pulido submitted five paintings to the open call from his Rural Republic series. The
collection of new paintings was inspired by his first childhood memories of paint and the
vibrant aesthetic mise-en-scène of the countryside neighbourhood in Colombia where he
grew up. The landscape of buildings in his hometown was a veritable visual feast of colour in
which each building made its own vibrant addition. It included seemingly endless hues that
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unfurled across a landscape scale concert of diverse colour-interaction. The Rural Republic
series not only portrays the architecture of colour in his hometown, it also explores the
deeply fraught history of violence that stains it, a story that ultimately unfolded in blood and
Figure 3. Jhonatan Pulido, Rural Republic, oil on canvas, 52 x 42 cm, 2018
The idea for the series was sparked by a complex early childhood memory related to
and activated by painting, the public sphere, the forbidden, and the exposed. As all of this
multifaced content became activated in his studio. Pulido had a significant realization that
great painting, its power, its story, does not only exist in the iconic galleries dedicated to the
canon of Western art. Paint, he realized, did important work right there in his remote, very
rural hometown - a place that, for a time, was plagued by frequent violence between
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Figure 4. Jhonatan Pulido, Portrait of a weapon, oil on canvas, 225 x 188 cm, 2019
government agents and local rebels fighting against them. The murders and bloodshed were
very real, but they were also carried out in ways that were in some repects hidden. It did not
look like a “war zone” because much of the fabric of the violent operation was covert. The
dark reality of that time was in stark contrast to such a beautiful setting overflowing with
complex vibrant colour. Pulido’s Rural Republic series operates in a way described by
Henrik Kaare Nielsen in his article Discursive Interventions which explores aesthetics and
the political:
When art intervenes into politics, it happens via the cultural public sphere, where art by
way of its specific formal and thematic tools creates “odd” new insights and ways of
experiencing, and on this basis offers its own, specific space of reflection as a mirror to
other discursive fields, including the political.32
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One aspect of the turmoil that was not hidden, was the painting, which in some
respects unfolded as a war of words and colours. Each side painted messages, slogans,
and claims against the other. Government agents called for compliance, rebels called for
freedom, progressively painting over and erasing each other’s last painting. Their socio-
political battle unfolded in the public realm through a combination of violence, intimidation,
fear, and paint. In this war, paint became a human agent with a voice, a power, and a call for
cultural change inserted onto the surface of the bucolic buildings of that countryside, while it
also served as an agent of the oppressive government. The paint was so powerful, it struck
fear in the population, they always erased it when it appeared, painting over the battle
messages with swatches of new lush solid colour.
This remarkable story of painting has a multitude of reparative actions. We could first
consider this use of paint as a way to materially refute political violence and oppression by
physically erasing messages that marred the landscape, attempting to return the countryside
to a setting of beauty, colour, and safety. Painting was a vehicle for the rebels’ cause and it
repaired some aspect of the inequitable power relations between the rebel and government
agents by giving them the power of a platform from which they could conduct their fight
against oppression through mass communication in paint.
Additionally, the moment of Pulido’s realization that great painting happened not just
within the hallowed halls of the Western canon, but that it happened right there, in rural
Colombia, where paint was heroic, visceral, hypnotic, powerful, affective, important, and
alive, offers a richly complex reparative turn that validated his own painting. Close looking at
Pulido’s abstracted paintings reveals the essence of these childhood encounters with paint,
the socio-political, as well as the cultural production of belief. The layering, erasing,
repainting, scraping, pastel colour palette all have a major presence in the series. Rural
Republic offers a unique contribution to the canon of reparative painting in the ways it
addresses activist aesthetics, social justice, and a critically imperative expansion of the
meaning of great painting that moves its borders beyond the historic confines of the limited
scope of stereotypic white male master painters from the Western canon.
Reparative Turn Through Therapeutic Autobiography
Artist Lydia Pettit33
Pettit submitted four highly personal paintings to the open call. The story about them
conveyed in her application text made clear how critical painting is for her as a vehicle to
reparatively think, imagine, and work through past trauma, as well as everyday life as a
woman trying to find ways to survive life subjected to a patriarchal social system. Like many
examples of strongly compelling reparative painting, Pettit’s pictures offer multiple reparative
aspects. Interruption for example includes a dual self-portrait, picturing the artist primarily in
transparency, mist, and reflection. The instance of her portrayal in a more flesh-like
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Figure 5. Lydia Pettit, Interruption, oil and oil pastel on canvas, 140 x 170 cm, 2018
embodiment only occurs in the very small section of her hands engaged in the beginning
stage of cleaning her teeth. The painting switches worlds in a mist of bathroom haze
between a figure ghost, a figure obscured, and a figure cleaning itself.
Loaded in this image are traces of cyclical feelings of shame/hiding, exposure, and
nakedness of truth that the artist struggles with as a survivor of physical and emotional
abuse by men. Her paintings give her a platform of strength from which she can work
through these feelings for her own wellbeing while also making them visible to other women
who are survivors - providing them with a psychic-visual space to work through similar
issues and/or find recognition, validation, and understanding. In these ways, her paintings
allow other survivors, even if they cannot paint, to benefit from this record of Pettit’s
struggles to cope with trauma. As a result, her paintings have an affective healing dimension
for the artist, and seek to repair feelings of trauma, isolation and shame survivors often
suffer. Through the visual language of Interruption, Pettit exposes the narrative of a survivor
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whose path towards recovery is heroic and reparative in its truth, bravery, and raw
confrontation with the damaging affective dimensions of trauma.
Artist Elise Broadway34
Figure 6. Elise Broadway, Good Boy, gauche and mixed media, 45 x 60 x 20 cm, 2018
Broadway applied to the open call with three pieces, two sculptural paintings and one
two-dimensional painting. Her work navigates autobiography at the intersection of race,
gender, sexuality, kinship, and mental health in the context of the American southwest.
Broadway had difficult kinship relationships growing up as many family members were proud
of their supposed ancestral links to Robert E. Lee and the civil war era southern
confederacy. They also embraced extremist religious conservatism paired with its requisite
homophobia and misogyny. Growing up in this kinship network and the wider social context
of the American south created a dynamic of ongoing emotional and psychological turbulence
for Broadway. Some of Broadway’s paintings become a record of her search for images that
she can use to construct an attempt to work through, conceive of, and reveal the truth about
the racist, homophobic, and misogynistic values which stain the culture of the American
south. Her paintings also capture her work to find and express a narrative that seeks to
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Figure 7. Elise Broadway, Blow Up, 140 x 60 x 182 cm (varies by installation), gouache,
gesso, and thread (hand-sewn) on cotton dish towels and yellow dusters, armature wire
and polyester stuffing, 2018-19
reveal a truth and somehow heal the complex damages that type of hate inflicts on a young
LGBT woman who survived girlhood in its shadow.
In Good Boy, Broadway works at unravelling the stereotype of the strong heroic white
southern American man who was glorified as an ideal human by the cultural beliefs of her
kinship network, which served as key agents of the rejection and marginalization she faced.
The sculptural painting removed his humanity, replacing him with a dog whose anatomy is
grotesquely distorted. The bulldog often seems badly inbred, overweight for its size,
suffering from joint problems, visibly struggling to breathe or even walk normally. The
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physical lacking of the bulldog points to the declining health endemic in her kinship network,
while also unravelling the mirage of the heroic white southern man.
The dog emerges from a cut up destroyed landscape, a portrait painted with a hot pink
scrotum, ensuring there is no question as to the sex of the animal. It also seems drunk, if not
already drunk, it is at least on its way, drinking an XL Bud Light in what seems a familiar and
comfortable regular habit. This dog stand-in is a proposal that there is no idyllic strong white
southern “real” American hero-man, demonstrating how that trope is steeped in sickening
toxic masculinity, in actuality inbred, barely mobile, and drunk. The reparative turn in Good
Boy is found in its ability to expose the fallacy of that toxic white masculinity by laying bare
its lack
- subverting the stereotype by removing the heroic all-powerful position of its
persona, replacing it with the truth that it is more like a sick inbred drunk. Good Boy is a
coup d'état seeking to remove the myth which serves to generate power for the white
southern American patriarch by using a play from his own book. Broadway dethrones the
stereotype by establishing the lacking and dysfunction of his body just as patriarchy has
done to women for generations.
Reparative Turn Through Celebrating What was Closeted
Artist Leon Pozniakow35
Figure 8. Leon Pozniakow, In Absence of the Man I Loved A and In Absence of the Man
I Loved B, oil and acrylic on Linen, 2019 (diptych)
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Pozniakow applied to the open call with a collection of five paintings of visual erotic
longings for the bearish male body that he says explore the “gayverse” - a concept he works
with that encompasses interior thoughts/desires and the exterior social context using
figurative as well as materially specific (such as gold leaf) passages. In spite of their erotic
yearnings, the paintings retain some dimension of fraught juxtaposition between celebratory
desire and echoes of homophobia’s shame, a toxic intervention in thoughts and feelings that
plagued him much of his adult life. In his application text, Pozniakow wrote of this dynamic in
his work saying that the paintings are
“drawing inspiration from the sublime and the
shadowy, enticing with fetishized representations of male beauty that both honour and
disturb the body.”36 For context, it could be productive to look towards Best again here to
Figure 9. Leon Pozniakow, The Collector, watercolour, silver and gold leaf on panel, 15 cm
x 20 cm, 2018
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help further conceptualize the possibility of repair by way of difficult content and the
reparative dimension’s drive to assimilate violence in order to achieve repair.
In the paintings, he celebrates the beauty of the bear and his desire for it. Pozniakow
often paints people he interacts with through internet-fed screens, that he sees in cartoons,
and/or in comics. He began painting these figurative narratives after experiencing
censorship at a conservative art institution. Realizing the impact of the painful psychological
affects that experience had on him, combined with the pain of being closeted about his
sexuality for most of his life, his paintings took a reparative turn towards this new narrative
grounded in pride and desire, firmly positioned outside of the closet. The paintings open the
door on the closet that used to hide him. They become a platform for Pozniakow to make
visible what shame tried in vain to erase. They help free him (as well as others trapped in
the closet, struggling with similar issues of shame) to be, and show the true self.
Reparative Turn Through Reclamation of Colonial Objects of Power and
Elevation of Everyday Materials
Hence, if the task is to unfix and loosen up dichotomous codifications of difference, the
terrain within which black artists intervene can no longer be adequately met by an
aesthetics of realism or protest which seeks to counteract “misrepresentation,” but
requires an acknowledgement of the emotional reality of fantasy as the domain of
psychic life that is also subject to the demands of the unconscious. — Kobena Mercer37
Artist Osaretin Ugiagbe38
Ugiagbe applied to the exhibition with five painted mixed-media collages that focused
on a few key ideas he was working through in the studio. I will focus here on what seemed a
key assemblage of topics: his experiences growing up in Nigeria, as a foreigner in the United
Kingdom, an immigrant in the United States, the importance of everyday material, and power
dynamics of educational settings. Living in the United Kingdom seemed to have brought
many aspects of his life in post-colonial Nigeria to front of mind for Ugiagbe. Living suddenly
in the heart of imperial power, perhaps the traces of its nefarious colonial history in Africa,
became visible to him in new ways. Considering his life, at the time, working as a graduate
student within a British institution, perhaps pedagogy and education were also not surprising
topics to find emerging in his paintings. 1234 stood out as a significant reparative turn in
painting, because its narrative was grounded in family, power, the impact of the postcolonial
pedagogical authority of educators and its impact on students.
During the studio visit, Ugiagbe talked in detail about the importance of material
choice in his paintings and his interest in exploring the power of materially, refuting the
canon of great Western painting by integrating everyday material into his work instead of
using more traditional oil paint and working on stretched canvas. In effect, these choices
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Figure 10. Osaretin Ugiagbe, 1234, metal clamps, multiple layers of paper on paper, oil on
rag, charcoal, oil, acrylic ink, print medium, found brown paper bag on paper, 80 x 59
sought to bring painting off its pedestal into the real, the everyday. During his time in the
United Kingdom his practice increasingly turned away from the trappings of the canon,
seeking to break new ground and forge a new way into painting - one that might consider
issues of the former British empire, but as a result of his approach, would specifically not be
defined by its rules. He achieved this in his methodological approach, developing the
methods, materials, and content for the series in ways that allowed him to paint within his
own framework, using his own rules. Ugiagbe’s current methods include: not working on
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canvas, not displaying his work using traditional cleanly hidden d-rings and wires, instead
selecting heavy metal clamps usually found holding together street market stalls to display
his paintings. Thinking about how, through practice, he can intervene in the trappings of the
canon of traditional Western painting, his media slants toward ink, liquified charcoal, and
more minimal paint applications - still painting, but also refuting painting through use of
drawing-painting approaches. In 1234, specifically, he also used white chalk, a reference to
the classrooms of his youth where teachers made extensive use of chalkboards.
1234 makes a reparative contribution to painting, not just in its turn to the material
everyday world of paper bags as canvases and industrial metal clamps signifying that there
is room for everyone in these paintings, but also in its use of white chalk which was wielded
by the powerful in his childhood and is now, through this painting, wielded at last by his own
hand. The empowerment embedded in his dominion over the chalk is significant, as
education shapes minds either to think critically or to follow. In the context of growing up in
post-colonial Nigeria, then finding himself in the UK, considering what key elements of these
cultures needed repair, clearly issues of education and its problematic aspects have risen to
the forefront in
1234. Significantly, the backward flowing white chalk text, “1234,” also
appears over an abstracted intergenerational portrait of his family, working to put a finer
point on his commentary about the many generations affected by the colonial, post-colonial,
and reconstruction era education systems in Nigeria.
Ugiagbe’s work makes a contribution to reparative painting in its materiality and
through his command of it as a vehicle to express by showing the power of material to
perform an alchemic act, transferring power and borders of the Western cannon of painting
and education into the everyday for everyone. 1234 then seems to again return us to bell
hooks sage wisdom about art and “… the way in which experiencing art can enhance our
understanding of what it means to live as free subjects in an unfree world.”39 Maybe, if she
wrote about 1234, she too would find it a reparative exit constructed of everyday materials
that leads us away from our current circumstances. We should pay close attention here to
Ugiagbe’s marks as he holds the white chalk, and at last offers a lesson of his own making.
In conclusion, this paper offers a first view of reparative painting theory of, as well as
in, practice. It includes detailed case study examples designed to trace the reparative turn in
painting beyond a theoretical proposal, through studio and exhibition research contexts, in
dialog with an interdisciplinary humanities approach. The methodology incorporated
personal practice-led research in painting, curation, studio visit discussions with
contemporary painters, and case studies presenting how the selected paintings work in
reparative ways. My aim is to offer a practice-led theory which has multifaceted potential to
subvert and/or repair damage caused by bias. The painting approaches included offer a
multitude of reparative permutations through their production of uplift, imaginative optimistic
futures, expression of wounded narratives, examples of transfer and/or realization of power,
beauty, rage, recovery from trauma, reclamation, and more. Using an embodied practice-led
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diffractive process to generate constructive exits and formation of agency, this framework
has an ambition to offer artists and viewers insight into the potential of a reparative turn to
generate release from and repair of the damage that results from subjection. This diffractive
approach develops reparative painting theory as seen through and in combination with
Sedgwick’s concept of reparative reading practice, new materialist conceptions of material
aliveness, encounter, and onto-epistemology, art theory that examines art’s potential to
create social agency, and identity studies. As the many crises of our contemporary reality
escalate, constructive approaches to generating individual as well as collective agency, and
a psychic/visceral reaching towards an exit from/repair of damaging impacts of systemic
racism, misogyny, and homophobia have become increasingly critical. This project answers
Sedgwick’s call for increased engagement with research using reparative approaches as
well as the urgent need for novel paradigms to address issues of social injustice.
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I would like to thank my Mother and Son who have supported and motivated me during the
often demanding painting, travel, and work required in pursuit of this elusive aim to develop
practice-led reparative painting theory. Thanks also to the teachers who played a part in my
development, as well as all the artists whose participation and active engagement in this
research process made the project possible.
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Barad, Karen. Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement
of Matter and Meaning. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006. doi:
———. "Posthumanist Performativity: Toward an Understanding of How Matter Comes
to Matter." Signs 28, no. 3, Gender and Science: New Issues (Spring 2003):
———. "Transmaterialities: Trans*/Matter/Realities and Queer Political Imaginings."
GLQ, A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, Queer Inhumanisms 21, no. 2-3
(2015): 387-422.
Best, Susan. Reparative Aesthetics: Witnessing in Contemporary Art Photography.
London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016.
———. Visualizing Feeling: Affect and the Feminine Avant-Garde. New York: I. B.
Tauris, 2011.
Bickmore, Kate. "Kate Bickmore Artist Website." Accessed January 18, 2019 http://
Broadway, Elise. "Elise Broadway Artist Profile Page." Accessed January 18, 2019.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Tenth Anniversary Edition. London, GBR: Routledge,
Coole, Diana H., and Samantha Frost, eds. New Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and
Politics. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 2010.
Elkins, James, ad Harper Montgomery, eds. Beyond the Aesthetic and the Anti-
Aesthetic, The Stone Art Theory Institutes Series, vol. 4. University Park,
Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2013.
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"English Oxford Living Dictionary." Oxford University Press. Accessed April 23, 2019. https://
Forrester, Shannon. "Embodying the Reparative Turn: Seeking Agency through Studio
Practice in Individual and Collective Contexts." PhD Dissertation, Royal College
of Art, 2018.
———. "Shannon Forrester Artist Website." Accessed February 20 2020. http://
Geerts, Evelien, and Iris van der Tuin. "From Intersectionality to Interference: Feminist
onto-Epistemological Reflections on the Politics of Representation." Women's
Studies International Forum 41, no. November-December (2013): 171-178.
Golding, Johnny. "Friendship." In The Edinburgh Companion to Animal Studies, edited
by Lynn Turner and Undine Sellbach 262-276. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh
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Graw, Isabelle. The Love of Painting: Genealogy of a Success Medium. Berlin:
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Halberstam, Jack, and Tavia Nyong’o, eds. "Introduction: Theory in the Wild." The South
Atlantic Quarterly, 117, no. 3 Wildness (2018): 453-464.
Hayles, Katherine. Unthought: The Power of the Cognitive Nonconscious. Chicago: The
University of Chicago Press, 2017. doi: 10.1080/00393274.2018.1460222
hooks, bell. Art on My Mind : Visual Politics. New York: New Press, 1995. doi:
Jones, Amelia. Seeing Differently: A History and Theory of Identification and the Visual
Arts. Abingdon, Oxon England: Routledge, 2012.
Klein, Melanie. Love, Guilt, and Reparation: And Other Works, 1921-1945. New York:
Free Press, 1984.
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Laing, Olivia. "Bad Surprises: Conspiracy Theories and Reparative Reading." Frieze 23,
no. April (2017). Accessed January 18, 2019.
Mercer, Kobena. "Busy in the Ruins of a Wretched Phantasia." In Frantz Fanon Critical
Perspectives 195-218, edited by Anthony C. Alessandrini. London, New York:
Routledge, 1999.
Muñoz, José Esteban. Cruising Utopia: The Then and There of Queer Futurity. New
York: New York University Press, 2009.
Nielsen, Henrik Kaare. "Discursive Interventions. On the Relationship between the
Aesthetic and the Political in Late Modernity." The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics
35 (2008): 46-59.
"Online Dictionary." Merriam-Webster. Accessed April 23, 2019. https://www.merriam-
Pettit, Lydia. "Lydia Pettit Artist Website." Accessed January 18, 2019. https://
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Thames & Hudson, 2018. doi: 99976502754
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Duke University Press, 2002.
———. Touching Feeling: Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity. Durham: Duke University
Press, 2003. doi: .
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Segal, Hanna. Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein. 5th ed. London: H. Karnac
Books Ltd., 1988.
Ugiagbe, Osaretin. "Osaretin Ugiagbe Artist Website." Accessed January 25, 2019.
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1 bell hooks, Art on My Mind: Visual Politics (New York: New Press, 1995), xvi.
2 Melanie Klein, Love, Guilt, and Reparation: And Other Works, 1921-1945, (New York:
Free Press, 1984) 123-152. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, "Paranoid Reading and
Reparative Reading, or You’re so Paranoid you Probably Think this Essay is About
You," in Touching Feeling: Affect, Pedagogy, Performativity (Durham: Duke University
Press, 2003).
3 Susan Best, Reparative Aesthetics: Witnessing in Contemporary Art Photography
(London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016); José Esteban Muñoz, Cruising Utopia: The
Then and There of Queer Futurity (New York: New York University Press, 2009).
4 Jack Halberstam and Tavia Nyong’o, eds., "Introduction: Theory in the Wild." The
South Atlantic Quarterly 117 no. 3 Wildness, (2018): 453-464. hooks, Art on My Mind.
5 Karen Barad, "Transmaterialities: Trans*/Matter/Realities and Queer Political
Imaginings," GLQ, A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 21, no. 2-3 (2015): 387-422.
Karen Barad, "Posthumanist Performativity: Toward an Understanding of How Matter
Comes to Matter," Signs 28, no. 3, (2003): 801-831. Karen Barad, Meeting the Universe
Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning (Durham:
Duke University Press, 2006). Diana H. Coole and Samantha Frost, eds., New
Materialisms: Ontology, Agency, and Politics (Durham NC: Duke University Press,
2010). Johnny Golding, "Friendship," in The Edinburgh Companion to Animal Studies,
ed. Lynn Turner and Undine Sellbach (Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University
Press, 2018), 262-276.
6 Sedgwick, Touching Feeling, 150.
7 Best, Reparative Aesthetics, 2. Here Best references anti-aesthetic scholarship in the
journal October, , Sedgwick's, Touching
Feeling, and see also James Elkins and Harper Montgomery, eds., Beyond the
Aesthetic and the Anti-Aesthetic, (University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State
University Press, 2013) 167.
8 Best Reparative Aesthetics, 3. See also 2015 lecture at Griffith University: https://
9 Hanna Segal, Introduction to the Work of Melanie Klein (London: H. Karnac Books,
1988), 75.
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10 Sedgwick, Touching Feeling, 128.
11 Segal, Work of Melanie Klein, 75.
12 Barad, Meeting the Universe Halfway, 354.
13 Ibid., 384
14 Isabelle Graw, The Love of Painting: Genealogy of a Success Medium (Berlin:
Sternberg Press, 2018), 23, 239, 241. Katherine Hayles, Unthought: The Power of the
Cognitive Nonconscious (Chicago ; London: The University of Chicago Press, 2017). In
reference to assemblage. Barad, "Posthumanist Performativity," 818. In reference to
15 Barad, "Posthumanist Performativity," 802.
16 Coole and Frost, New Materialisms, 19.
17 Barad, "Posthumanist Performativity."
18 Barad, "Transmaterialities."
19 Ibid., 411.
20 Ibid., 388.
21 Barad, "Posthumanist Performativity," 802.
22 Graw, The Love of Painting, 48-58.
23 Ibid., 23.
24Susan Best, Visualizing Feeling: Affect and the Feminine Avant-Garde (New York: I. B.
Tauris, 2011), 8.
25 Halberstam and Nyong’o, "Introduction," 453-463. Referring to the context of
26 Best, Reparative Aesthetics, 2.
27 Kate Bickmore, "Kate Bickmore Artist Website," accessed January 18, 2019. http:// .
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28 Painting from the Other Side open call application, Kate Bickmore, January 15 2019,
accessed London, UK.
29 Shannon Forrester, "Shannon Forrester Artist Website," accessed February 20, 2020. .
30 Shannon Forrester, "Begin," in Embodying the Reparative Turn: Seeking Agency
through Studio Practice in Individual and Collective Contexts (PhD dissertation in
process, Royal College of Art).
31Jhonatan Pulido, "Jhonatan Pulido Artist Website," accessed September 15, 2019. .
32 Henrik Kaare Nielsen, "Discursive Interventions. On the Relationship between the
Aesthetic and the Political in Late Modernity," The Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 35
(2008), 55.
33 Lydia Pettit, "Lydia Pettit Artist Website," accessed January 18, 2019. https:// .
34 Elise Broadway, "Elise Broadway Artist Profile Page," accessed January 18, 2019. .
35 Leon Pozniakow, "Leon Pozniakow Instagram Page," accessed January 18, 2019. .
36 Painting from the Other Side open call application, Leon Pozniakow, January 15
2019, accessed London, UK
37 Kobena Mercer, “Busy in the Ruins of a Wretched Phantasia,” in Frantz Fanon Critical
Perspectives, ed. Anthony C. Alessandrini (New York: Routledge, 1999), 200.
38 Osaretin Ugiagbe, "Osaretin Ugiagbe Artist Website," accessed January 22, 2019. .
39 hooks, Art on My Mind, 9.
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