Pasqua First Nation Economic Entitlements Final Report




Key Findings


  • The government viewed Treaty 4 as a way to seize and secure Indigenous lands for their nation building project. This view differed substantially from the perspective held by Indigenous peoples, as they saw treaties as sacred nation to nation agreements that solidified a mutual relationship shared between them and the Crown.
  • Oral promises made in the negotiation of Treaty 4 were not accounted for in the final written document, which caused immense dissatisfaction among bands. In addition, it contributed to feelings of distrust.
  • Harmful prejudices held by the government, and thus their employees, often negatively affected their judgement in regard to the concerns, anxieties and challenges brought forward by the Treaty 4 signatories.
  • The inadequate quantity and quality of goods given to Pasquas band had negative impacts on their agricultural success.
  • Blame was constantly cast onto bands for their perceived failures, although climate conditions, the delayed dispersal of seed, and insufficient assistance often contributed to their lack of success.
  • The pictographs created by Pasqua are the only written form of records kept throughout this time period that display an Indigenous perspective, rather than a colonial mindset. These pictographs can be used as a method to ascertain whether Pasquas band received the necessary quantities of implements, provisions and livestock that were stipulated under treaty.
  • Pasquas band received only a small portion of the implements promised to his band, which can be seen in his records.
  • The government took every opportunity to cut down on the expenditures associated with bands. However, this often went against what had been promised in treaty, such as; limiting the allowed number of headmen, strict stipulations put into place for the distribution of goods and strategically delayed annuity payments.
  • The ‘Home Farm Policy/Experiment’ failed substantially due to the overall ignorance of the government.
  • Throughout the ‘Home Farm Policy’ era, the needs of bands were put on the ‘back burner’ while the government choose to supply farm instructors with the implements, provisions and livestock that were promised to bands through treaty.
  • The records kept for the years spanning 1879-84 are very limited, as they report the location rather than bands that goods and services were distributed to. They do not indicate the quantities of implements, provisions or livestock provided to each of the bands under Treaty 4.
  • Sickness was a growing challenge for bands on reserves, often being left without medical assistance. Mortality related due to consumption goes against the promise made in Treaty 4 that liquor would not be allowed on reserves.
  • The private ownership of oxen, securing the necessary agricultural implements and receiving the needed assistance lead to agricultural success on Pasquas reserve.
  • Growing fears of an uprising significantly influenced the livelihoods of bands, as it led to strict government stipulations and rules that limited their movement as well as their ability to participate in local economies.




How to Cite

Frick, A. (2021). Pasqua First Nation Economic Entitlements Final Report. Constellations, 12(2).



First Nations History