Ethnic-connectedness and economic inequality: a persisting relationship

Madeline A. Kalbach, Kelly H. Hardwick, Renata D. Vintila, Warren E. Kalbach


This paper focuses on the relationship between the retention of ethnic or cultural distinctiveness and economic inequality for Ukrainians, Germans, Italians, Chinese, and south East Asians. It uses Canadian census data to test predictions arising from assimilation theory by examining the possible varying effects of religion on economic inequality for the five ethnic groups in order to determine whether assimilation theory and the multidimensional effect of ethnicity can predict within group variations. This analysis lends emphasis to the fact that retention of ethnic-connectedness and distinctiveness may create obstacles for the immigrant attempting to achieve economic success in Canada.

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