Demography of a man-made human catastrophe: The case of massive famine in Ukraine 1932-1933
Keywords:1932–33 Ukraine famine, Holodomor, 1932–33 famine urban-rural losses, excess deaths, lost births.
Estimates of 1932–34 famine direct losses (excess deaths) by age and sex and indirect losses (lost births) are calculated, for the first time, for rural and urban areas of Ukraine. Total losses are estimated at 4.5 million, with 3.9 million excess deaths and 0.6 million lost births. Rural and urban excess deaths are equivalent to 16.5 and 4.0 per cent of respective 1933 populations. We show that urban and rural losses are the result of very different dynamics, as reflected in the respective urban and rural age structures of relative excess deaths.
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