Canada's Immigration Trends and Patterns


  • Barry Edmonston University of Victoria



Population, Migration, Immigration, Nativity


Canada was settled by immigrants, including Aboriginal peoples who arrived thousands of years ago, French and British settlers who first began arriving in the 1600s, and people from many other nations who have migrated in the past four centuries.  Now, almost 150 years since the Confederation of Canada in 1867, immigrants number 6.8 million and comprise 20 percent of the total population in 2011.  Canada’s population has completed the demographic transition from high mortality and fertility to relatively low vital rates, but accompanied by continued, fluctuating international migration.  Canada’s population reflects this fertility and mortality history, as well as the effects of international migration. Immigration has increased in significance in recent decades as one of the key factors influencing population change.   This paper examines Canada’s trends and patterns in international migration.

Author Biography

Barry Edmonston, University of Victoria

Research Professor

Department of Sociology

University of Victoria

Victoria, Canada