Evidence Based Library and Information Practice https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP en-US <p>The <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/">Creative Commons-Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike License 4.0 International</a> applies to all works published by <em>Evidence Based Library and Information Practice</em>. Authors will retain copyright of the work.</p> lorie.kloda@concordia.ca (Lorie Kloda) rhinrich@iupui.edu (Rachel Hinrichs, Production Editor) Sat, 15 Jun 2019 11:53:57 -0600 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Journal Update from EBLIP10 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29591 <p>no abstract</p> Lorie A. Kloda ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29591 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Editorial Responsibilities https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29590 <p>No abstract.</p> . . ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29590 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Evaluating Bibliographic Referencing Tools for a Polytechnic Environment https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29489 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – This paper analyzes the design process for a toolkit for appraising emerging and established bibliographic reference generators and managers for a particular student population. Others looking to adapt or draw from the toolkit to meet the needs of users at their own institutions will benefit from this exploration of how one team developed and streamlined the process of assessment.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The authors implemented an extensive initial evaluation using a checklist and comprehensive rubric to review and select reference tools. This work was guided by a matrix of categories from Marino (2012), Bates (2015), and other literature. As the tools were assessed using the toolkit, the components of the toolkit were evaluated and revised. Toolkit revisions were based on evaluators’ feedback and lessons learned during the testing process.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>– Fifty-three tools were screened using a checklist that reviewed features, including cost and referencing styles. Eighteen tools were thoroughly evaluated using the comprehensive rubric by multiple researchers to minimize bias. From this secondary testing, tools were recommended for use within this environment. Ultimately the process of creating an assessment toolkit allowed the researchers to develop a streamlined process for further testing. The toolkit includes a checklist to reduce the list of potential tools, a rubric for features, a rubric to evaluate qualitative criteria, and an instrument for scoring.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – User needs and the campus environment are critical considerations for the selection of reference tools. For this project, researchers developed a comprehensive rubric and testing procedure to ensure consistency and validity of data. The streamlined process in turn enabled library staff to provide evidence based recommendations for the most suitable manager or generator to meet the needs of individual programs. </p> Gina Brander, Erin Langman, Tasha Maddison, Jennifer Shrubsole ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29489 Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Delivering Information Literacy via Facebook: Here Comes the Spinach! https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29532 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– Information literacy (IL) skills are critical to undergraduate student success and yet not all students receive equal amounts of curriculum-integrated IL instruction. This study investigated whether Facebook could be employed by libraries as an additional method of delivering IL content to students. To test whether students would engage with IL content provided via a library Facebook page, this study compared the engagement (measured by Facebook’s reach and engagement metrics) with IL content to the library’s normal marketing content.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – We ran a two-part intervention using the University of Canterbury Library’s Facebook page. We created content to help students find, interpret, and reference resources, and measured their reception using Facebook’s metrics. Our first intervention focused on specific courses and mentioned courses by name through hashtagging, while our second intervention targeted peak assessment times during the semester. Statistics on each post’s reach and engagement were collected from Facebook’s analytics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> – Students chose to engage with posts on the library Facebook page that contain IL content more than the normal library marketing-related content. Including course-specific identifiers (hashtags) and tagging student clubs and societies in the post further increased engagement. Reach was increased when student clubs and societies shared our content with their followers.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – This intervention found that students engaged more with IL content than with general library posts on Facebook. Course-targeted interventions were more successful in engaging students than generic IL content, with timeliness, specificity, and community being important factors in building student engagement. This demonstrates that academic libraries can use Facebook for more than just promotional purposes and offers a potential new channel for delivering IL content.</p> A. F. Tyson, Anton Angelo, Brian McElwaine, Kiera Tauro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29532 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 First-Year Students and the Framework: Using Topic Modeling to Analyze Student Understanding of the Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29514 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – The Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education has generated a significant amount of discussion among academic librarians; however, few have discussed the potential impact on learning when students interact directly with the Framework itself. At the University of Notre Dame, over 1,900 first-year students completed an information literacy assignment in their required first-year experience course. Students read a condensed version of the Framework, then wrote a response discussing how a frame of their choosing was reflected in an assigned reading. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine if the students demonstrated an understanding of the themes and concepts in the Framework based on this assignment.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Topic modeling, a method for discovering topics contained in a corpus of text, was used to explore the themes that emerged in the students’ responses to this assignment and assess the degree to which they connect to frames in the Framework. The model receives no information about the Framework prior to the analysis; it only uses the students’ words to form topics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> – The responses formed several topics that are recognizable as related to the frames from the Framework, suggesting that students were able to engage effectively and meaningfully with the language of the Framework. Because the topic model does not know anything about the Framework, the fact that the responses formed topics that are recognizable as frames suggests that students internalized the concepts in the Framework well enough to express them in their own writing.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – This research provides insight regarding the impact that the Framework may have on student understanding of information literacy concepts.</p> Melissa Harden ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29514 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Testing a Warmth-Based Instruction Intervention for Reducing Library Anxiety in First-Year Undergraduate Students https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29548 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – This study aimed to test the efficacy of a warmth-based library instruction intervention in reducing rates of library anxiety in first-year undergraduate students. "Warmth" is a concept that is commonly discussed within literature on library anxiety, but to date no studies have explicitly tested the application of a warmth-based instruction intervention. First-year students are ideal targets for this intervention because they are the most likely to experience library anxiety.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – A quasi-experiment was conducted examining library anxiety rates in first-year undergraduate students at a public research university in the U.S. South. A one-shot warmth-based instruction session focusing on the emotional dimensions of library use was compared to a standard one-shot instruction session. Library anxiety was measured using a modified version of Bostick's Library Anxiety Scale as a pretest and posttest.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>– Results indicated that both warmth-based and standard library instruction were associated with a decrease in participants' library anxiety rates without significant differences between the types of instruction. However, warmth-based instruction was correlated with greater reductions in areas of library anxiety related to interactions with library workers. Though library anxiety rates decreased significantly after experiencing library instruction, participants exhibited low levels of library anxiety before their library instruction session occurred.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Though warmth-based instruction did not have a significantly different impact than standard library instruction on general library anxiety, the intervention tested in this study suggests strategies that could be used to increase student comfort with library workers. This study also demonstrates a successful method to include emotional factors such as library anxiety in academic libraries' regular assessment programs. Focusing assessment on students' skills and knowledge alone risks ignoring an important aspect of student engagement and missing opportunities for academic libraries to connect with students. Assessment of emotional components of library instruction initiatives is especially crucial to ensure and demonstrate that libraries are using their resources effectively to maximize student success.</p> Cecelia Parks ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29548 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 The Information Searching Behaviour of Music Directors https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29515 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – This research project sought to elucidate some of the information searching behaviours of directors/conductors of performing music ensembles when selecting repertoire for performance. Of particular focus was the kind of information needed to select repertoire and where that information was sought and acquired.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Semi-structured, guided interviews were undertaken with three conductors from varying musical ensemble forms (choral, orchestral, and wind). This included a graphical elicitation exercise following Sonnenwald’s concept of information horizon maps. A narrative analysis was done, and recurring themes were sought in the various responses to questions and created drawings.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> – The results indicated that directors make significant use of historical and print resources in creating personal lists of repertoire for current or future use. Professional connections for discussion of new or less well-known repertoire were also very important. One particularly interesting outcome was the non-temporally bound nature of conductors’ information searching behaviour, as the current models of information behaviour primarily relate to temporally bound searches. The Internet was noted by the three conductors not as an information source in and of itself but rather as an extension of other information sources.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> – This research highlighted the atemporal nature of information searching behaviour in music directors and suggested a similar aspect in the broader information search process. It indicated a need for libraries that cater to performers to maintain historical lists of varying types (e.g., concert programs, similar lists created by other prominent members of the community, and other types of repertoire lists). Additionally, maintaining community connections and knowledge of new or newly available repertoire is important.</p> Martin Chandler ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29515 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 An Evidence Based Approach to Supporting Library Staff Scholarly Communication Competencies https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29570 <p>No abstract.</p> Christie Hurrell, James E. Murphy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29570 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Why are They Not Visiting the Library? Understanding Political Science Postgraduate Students https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29569 <p>No abstract.</p> Abdul Jabbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29569 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 A Case for the Use of Nonparametric Statistical Methods in Library Research https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29563 <p>No abstract.</p> Megan Hodge ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29563 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Updated Survey Information About Librarian-Researchers Prompts Authors to Consider Revising the Curriculum for Their Institute for Research Design in Librarianship Course https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29562 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Kennedy, M.R., &amp; Brancolini, K.R. (2018). Academic librarian research: An update to a survey of attitudes, involvement, and perceived capabilities. <em>College and Research Libraries</em>, <em>79</em>(6), 822-851. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.79.6.822">https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.79.6.822</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective – </strong>To examine academic librarians’ current attitudes and preparedness to conduct research in order to update the knowledge gained from the authors’ 2010 survey, and to determine if changes were needed in their Institute for Research Design in Librarianship continuing education curriculum.</p> <p><strong>Design – </strong>Web based<strong> s</strong>urvey.</p> <p><strong>Setting – </strong>Institutions that employ academic and/or research librarians.</p> <p><strong>Subjects – </strong>793 academic and research librarians.</p> <p><strong>Methods – </strong>The researchers posted a call for participation in their 2015 Librarian Research survey on listservs where academic and research librarians are members. The survey expanded upon the authors’ 2010 survey by adding questions to more fully explore three areas: research self-efficacy; Master’s thesis and statistics courses, and; research mentoring and institutional support. 793 librarians responded to the survey, and 669 of these respondents completed it. All data from incomplete surveys was included in the analysis. Survey results were compared with the results from the 2010 survey as well as with the responses from a survey conducted in 2000 by Powel, Baker, and Mika, which addressed many of the same topics under investigation.</p> <p><strong>Main Results – </strong>The authors analyzed the survey results based on four areas: the current research practice of responding academic librarians; a self-evaluation of their confidence in performing the steps in the research process; methods training courses in which they have participated, and; demographics and institutional data related to support of library research<strong>.</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Regarding current research practices, 84% of respondents said it is assumed that they will read research-based literature as part of their job as academic librarians; 80% are allowed time at work for this purpose; 6% did not know if it was assumed that they will read research-based literature as part of their job; and 9% were unsure if they were allowed to use work time to read the literature. 78% scan tables of contents for research-based journals, while 58% regularly read the full content of these articles (this is a significant drop from the 78% who reported that they regularly read full text articles in the 2010 survey).</p> <p>Time was the primary reason cited for not regularly reading research-based literature. 77% of respondents have conducted research since completing their Library Science degree (although 2% did not have a Master’s degree).&nbsp;</p> <p>Respondents rated their confidence on a scale of one to five, with one being “Not at all confident” and five being “Very confident.” Overall, there were 38 components related to the steps in the research process, which were grouped into 8 questions on the survey.&nbsp; For these questions, an average rating of 3.41 was calculated. From statistical analysis, the authors determined that there is a significant correlation between conducting research and librarian confidence in the process.</p> <p>The survey contained seven questions related to methods training. The authors were specifically interested in the correlation between librarians having conducted research since completing their degree and librarians’ belief that their degree adequately prepared them to do so. Statistical analysis revealed that the relationship between these factors was not significant; this result was consistent with the results from the authors’ 2010 survey as well as from the findings of Powell, Baker, and Mika. The authors were also curious as to whether librarians who had written a thesis as part of their Library Science degree were more likely to have conducted research since earning their degree. This relationship between these variables was not significant, however the relationship between writing a thesis for another graduate degree and conducting research was significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion – </strong>The number of survey responses indicates that research is still a current, important issue for academic and research librarians. The authors will use the information from the surveys to revise their educational curriculum, specifically in the areas of current research practice, librarian confidence, and methods training.</p> Elaine Sullo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29562 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Academic Librarians in Canada Concerned About Online and Patron Privacy but Lack Knowledge About Institutional Procedures and Policies https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29555 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Tummon, N., &amp; McKinnon, D. (2018). Attitudes and practices of Canadian academic librarians regarding library and online privacy: A national study. <em>Library and Information Science Research, 40</em>(2), 86-97. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2018.05.002">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2018.05.002</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To assess attitudes of Canadian academic librarians regarding online privacy issues and to gauge their knowledge of related procedures and policies at their institutions.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Attitudinal online survey in English.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – English-language academic libraries in 10 Canadian provinces.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – English-speaking academic librarians across Canada.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Survey, based on Zimmer’s 2014 study of librarians in the United States of America, announced via email to 1,317 potential participants, managed using LimeSurvey, and available from April 7 to May 5, 2017. In 28 optional multiple choice or Likert scale questions, the survey prompted participants to express their attitudes regarding online privacy scenarios and privacy-related library practices, including patron data collection. Results were analyzed in Microsoft Excel and SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– The survey response rate was 13.9% (183 respondents). Job position, age, or geographic location did not appear to influence attitudes towards privacy, with almost all respondents strongly agreeing or agreeing that individuals should control who sees their personal information (96.2%) and that companies collect too much such information (97.8%). Respondents voiced slightly less concern about government information collection, but nearly all respondents agreed that governments should not share personal information with third parties without authorization and that companies should only use information for the purposes they specify. When asked if privacy issues are more important today than five years ago, 69.9% of respondents said they were more concerned and 78.1% noted they knew more than five years before about privacy-related risks.</p> <p>Regarding online behaviour, 53.3% of respondents felt web behaviour tracking is both beneficial and harmful, with 29.1% considering it harmful, and 13.7% finding it neither beneficial nor harmful. Online shopping and identify theft, social media behaviour tracking, search engine policy display, and personal information sharing were also areas of concern for respondents, with the majority noting they were somewhat or very concerned about these issues.</p> <p>&nbsp;In terms of library practices, most respondents strongly agreed that libraries should not share personal information, circulation records, or Internet use records with third parties unless authorized, though 33% of respondents noted they could neither agree nor disagree that libraries are doing all they can to prevent unauthorized access to such information. The majority of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that libraries should play a role in educating patrons about privacy issues. Many respondents (68.9%) did not know if their libraries had practices or procedures for dealing with patron information requests from law enforcement or governmental representatives. The majority of respondents did not know if patrons at their libraries had inquired about privacy issues, 42.3% did not know if their libraries communicate privacy policies to patrons, and 45.4% noted their libraries did not inform patrons about library e-resource privacy policies. Many respondents (55.2%) had attended educational sessions about online privacy and surveillance in the past five years, while 52.2% noted their libraries had not hosted or organized such sessions over the same period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Survey participants showed concern about online and patron privacy, though their lack of knowledge about local procedures and policies highlights a potential need for enhanced privacy education.</p> Stephanie Krueger ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29555 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Recent American Library School Graduate Disciplinary Backgrounds are Predominantly English and History https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29550 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Clarke, R. I., &amp; Kim, Y.-I. (2018). The more things change, the more they stay the same: educational and disciplinary backgrounds of American librarians, 1950-2015. <em>School of Information Studies: Faculty Scholarship</em>, 178. <a href="https://surface.syr.edu/istpub/178">https://surface.syr.edu/istpub/178</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– To determine the educational and disciplinary backgrounds of recent library school graduates and compare them to librarians of the past and to the general population.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– Cross-sectional.</p> <p><strong>Setting </strong>– 7 library schools in North America.</p> <p><strong>Subjects </strong>– 3,191 students and their 4,380 associated degrees.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– Data was solicited from every ALA-accredited Master of Library Science (MLS) program in the United States of America, Canada, and Puerto Rico on students enrolled between 2012-2016 about their undergraduate and graduate degrees and areas of study. Data was coded and summarized quantitatively. Undergraduate degree data were recoded and compared to the undergraduate degree areas of study for the college-educated American population for 2012-2015 using the IPEDS Classification of Instructional Programs taxonomic scheme. Data were compared to previous studies investigating librarian disciplinary backgrounds.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– 12% of schools provided data. Recent North American library school graduates have undergraduate and graduate degrees with disciplinary backgrounds in humanities (41%), social sciences (22%), professions (17%), Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) (11%), arts (6%), and miscellaneous/interdisciplinary (3%). Of the humanities, English (14.68%) and history (10.43%) predominate. Comparing undergraduate degrees with the college-educated American population using the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) classification schema, recent library school graduates have a higher percentage of degrees in social sciences and history (21.37% vs. 9.24%), English language and literature/letters (20.33% vs. 2.65%), computer and information science (6.54% vs. 2.96%), and foreign languages, literatures, and linguistics (6.25% vs. 1.1%). Compared to librarians in the past, there has been a decline in recent library school graduates with English language and literature/letters, education, biological and physical sciences, and library science undergraduate degrees. There has been an increase in visual and performing arts undergraduate degrees in recent library school graduates.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– English and history disciplinary backgrounds still predominate in recent library school graduates. This could pose problems for library school students unfamiliar with social science methodologies, both in school and later when doing evidence-based practice in the work place. The disciplinary backgrounds of recent library school graduates were very different from the college-educated American population. An increase in librarians with STEM backgrounds may help serve a need for STEM support and provide more diverse perspectives. More recent library school graduates have an arts disciplinary background than was seen in previous generations. The creativity and innovation skills that an arts background provides could be an important skill in librarianship.</p> Heather MacDonald ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29550 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Academic Library Patrons Value Personalized Attention and Subject Matter Expertise in Reference Consultations https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29540 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Rogers, E., &amp; Carrier, H. S. (2017). A qualitative investigation of patrons’ experiences with academic library research consultations. <em>Reference Services Review</em>, <em>45</em>(1), 18–37. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1108/RSR-04-2016-0029">https://doi.org/10.1108/RSR-04-2016-0029</a></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Abstract</span></strong><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Objective</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">&nbsp;– To examine the experiences of patrons with one-on-one reference consultation services.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Design</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">&nbsp;– Qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Setting</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">&nbsp;– Academic library at a public university in the Southern United States.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Subjects</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">&nbsp;– Students who attended a consultation with a reference librarian.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">M</span></strong><strong><span data-contrast="auto">ethods</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">&nbsp;– All students who attended a reference consultation with a librarian were invited to participate in an interview. Open-ended interviews were conducted after informed consent was collected. Interviewers were provided with prompts to help participants discuss their experiences but were not intended to guide the conversation. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed line-by-line. The transcripts were then analyzed using a conventional, inductive model of content analysis. Transcripts were first analyzed in an initial phase to identify basic themes, and then further examined in an advanced analysis in light of these themes.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Main Results</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">&nbsp;– 10 students agreed to participate for a response rate of 38%.&nbsp; Most participants became aware of the reference consultation service by receiving library instruction as part of their course or through word-of-mouth recommendations from peers or faculty. No participants were aware of consultations through library marketing efforts or the library website. The major theme that emerged from the analysis was that patrons chose a reference consultation because it allowed them one-on-one attention from the librarian and because of the librarian’s perceived subject expertise. The primary problems participants identified with the service were that it was not adequately marketed to the students and that students were not aware of the service. Participants intended to use the skills and information gathered from the consultation to continue their independent research and they also largely intended to use librarian’s services as they continue working on their projects.&nbsp;</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><strong><span data-contrast="auto">Conclusion</span></strong><span data-contrast="auto">&nbsp;– The authors found that the reference consultation is a valuable service for academic libraries and that consultation with a librarian in their office provides unique perceived benefits to the patrons compared to a traditional reference desk interaction. Further research is suggested to determine the value of consultations for distance or online students, to ensure that reference consultations services are sustainable, and to further examine student’s emotive reactions to the consultation experience.</span><span data-ccp-props="{&quot;201341983&quot;:0,&quot;335559739&quot;:0,&quot;335559740&quot;:240}">&nbsp;</span></p> Jennifer Kaari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29540 Tue, 18 Jun 2019 13:55:33 -0600 Blind User Experiences of US Academic Libraries can be Improved by More Proactive Reference Service Delivery https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29565 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Mulliken, A. (2017). There is nothing inherently mysterious about assistive technology: A qualitative study about blind user experiences in US academic libraries. <em>Reference &amp; User Services Quarterly</em>, <em>57</em>(2), 115-126. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5860/rusq.57.2.6528">https://doi.org/10.5860/rusq.57.2.6528</a> </p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To explore blind users’ experiences with academic libraries.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Qualitative questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Academic libraries within the United States of America.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – 18 individuals who are legally blind, have experience relying on a screen reader to access the internet, and have used an academic library either online or in person within the previous two years.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – An open-ended questionnaire was administered via telephone interview. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive approach to identify themes using Hill et al.’s (2005) approach.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – The author found seven themes in the interview data: experiences working with reference librarians in person, difficulty with library websites, screen reader use during reference transactions, preferences for independence, using chat, interactions with disability officers, and challenges of working with citation styles.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – The study concluded that academic libraries and librarians should be more proactive when approaching reference services for blind users. The author offered suggestions for practice about how to improve blind user experiences of academic libraries.</p> Alisa Howlett ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29565 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Scale Evaluating the Information Literacy Self-Efficacy of Medical Students Created and Tested in a Six-Year Belgian Medical Program https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29564 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>De Meulemeester, A., Buysse, H., &amp; Peleman, R. (2018). Development and validation of an Information Literacy Self-Efficacy Scale for medical students. <em>Journal of Information Literacy, 12</em>(1), 27-47. Retrieved from <a href="https://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/JIL/article/view/PRA-V12-I1-2">https://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/JIL/article/view/PRA-V12-I1-2</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective – </strong>To create and validate a scale evaluating the information literacy (IL) self-efficacy beliefs of medical students.</p> <p><strong>Design – </strong>Scale development.</p> <p><strong>Setting – </strong>Large, public research university in Belgium.</p> <p><strong>Subjects – </strong>1,252 medical students enrolled in a six-year medical program in the 2013-2014 academic year.</p> <p><strong>Methods – </strong>Ten medical-specific IL self-efficacy questions were developed to expand a 28-item Information Literacy Self-Efficacy Scale (ILSES) (Kurbanoglu, Akkoyunlu, &amp; Umay, 2006). Medical students in Years 1 – 5 completed the questionnaire (in English) in the first two weeks of the academic year, with students in Year 6 completing after final exams. Respondents rated their confidence with each item 0 (‘I do not feel confident at all’) to 100 (‘I feel 100% confident’). Principal Axis Factoring analysis was conducted on all 38 items to identify subscales. Responses were found suitable for factor analysis using Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure (KMO). Factors were extracted using the Kaiser-Gutmann rule with Varimax rotation applied. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the internal consistency of each identified subscale. Following a One-way-ANOVA testing for significant differences, a Tamhane T2 post-hoc test obtained a pairwise comparison between mean responses for each student year.</p> <p><strong>Main Results – </strong>Five subscales with a total of 35 items were validated for inclusion in the Information Literacy Self-Efficacy Scale for Medicine (ILSES-M) and found to have a high reliability (Chronbach’s alpha scores greater than .70). Subscales were labelled by concept, including “Evaluating and Processing Information” (11 items), “Medical Information Literacy Skills” (10 items), “Searching and Finding Information” (6 items), “Using the Library” (4 items), and “Bibliography” (4 items). The factor loading of non-medical subscales closely reflected studies validating the original ILSES (Kurbanoglu, Akkoyunla, &amp; Umay, 2006; Usluel, 2007), suggesting consistency in varying contexts and across time. Although overall subscale means were relatively low, immediate findings among medical students at Ghent University demonstrated an increase in the IL self-efficacy of students as they advance through the 6-year medical program. Students revealed the least confidence in “Using the Library.”</p> <p><strong>Conclusions – </strong>The self-efficacy of individuals in approaching IL tasks has an impact on self-motivation and lifelong learning. The authors developed the ILSES-M as part of a longitudinal study protocol appraising the IL self-efficacy beliefs of students in a six-year medical curriculum (De Meulemeester, Peleman, &amp; Buysse, 2018). The ILSES-M “…could give a clear idea about the evolution of perceived IL and the related need for support and training” (p. 43). Further research could evaluate the scale’s impact on curriculum and, conversely, the impact of curricular changes on ILSE. Qualitative research may afford additional context for scale interpretation. The scale may also provide opportunities to assess the confidence levels of incoming students throughout time. The authors suggested further research should apply the ILSES-M in diverse cultural and curricular settings.</p> Brittany Richardson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29564 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Use of Diverse Online Resources amongst Politically Active University Students Fosters Civic Knowledge Integration https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29529 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Soe, Y. (2018) Understanding politics more thoroughly: How highly engaged young citizens use the Internet for civic knowledge integration. <em>First Monday,</em> <em>23</em>(6), 1-17. <a href="http://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v23i6.7923">http://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v23i6.7923</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To examine the process by which university students with a high interest in politics and public affairs incorporate new information into their understanding of politics and public affairs, a process referred to as civic knowledge integration.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– This study utilized a qualitative research design that consisted of focus group interviews and essay questions.</p> <p><strong>Setting – </strong>Two large four-year Midwestern public universities and two four-year East coast private universities in the United States of America in 2008 and 2010.</p> <p><strong>Subjects – </strong>A total of 65 undergraduate and graduate (masters) students participated in the focus group interviews and answered essay questions by e-mail.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – In 2008, the researcher conducted 11 focus groups consisting of 5 to 7 participants per group. In 2010, additional data were collected from students at another large four-year Midwestern public university who responded by e-mail to essay questions that were adapted from those used in the focus groups. Recruitment of participants was achieved by contacting professors of media and political science at the universities and targeting students with interest in media, politics, and public affairs, and who were politically active. Course credit or a small monetary incentive was offered to students as compensation. Data resulting from the focus group and essay responses were combined and imported into the QDA Miner software. Data analysis, which used some techniques of grounded theory, was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, 120 analyzable subsets were identified, and open coding of 36 subsets was performed to determine themes. These themes were then modified and renamed using an axial and selective coding process. Examples of resulting topics included collaborative layering of ideas, comparison of differing viewpoints, and monitorial scanning. The second phase involved coding of the 120 subsets, and 65 subgroups that focused on civic knowledge integration were identified. Ultimately, open, thematic coding of the 65 subsets was performed to identify comments that contained the most common themes.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – An analysis of the data revealed that participants used the resulting themes as self-guided learning strategies when searching the Internet for civic knowledge integration, the process by which university students with a high interest in politics and public affairs incorporate new information into their understanding of these areas. One of the strategies used was a two-step process of monitorial scanning and opinion sampling. Monitorial scanning involves the careful selection of search engines in order to scan the news and determine their potential levels of interest, and the use of online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia to locate background information and other details. Opinion sampling involves the process of sorting the sources found, such as blogs and candidates’ web pages. Another strategy used was verification (cross-checking), which consisted of checking multiple sources to find more information on a particular news item or news show, such as those watched on CNN.com. Comparison of differing and opposing viewpoints was another strategy used, that involved the comparing of information about political candidates' perspectives or views to justify their own opinions. Finally, collaborative layering of ideas was a strategy that involved participation in online forums, such as Facebook. This strategy provided participants with the opportunity to express their thoughts and opinions globally, and to contribute to a change in a set practice.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– Through the use of strategies for self-guided learning, participants were able to add new information to their knowledge base and to develop new points of view. These students developed advanced search strategies and took pleasure in finding opposing perspectives, and as a result, enhanced their critical thinking skills. The conclusions also increased general knowledge of why young people used specific online platforms, information resources, or social media sites to enhance their understanding of politics and public affairs. These findings may also challenge media and political science to investigate the long-term effects of self-guided learning strategies for civic knowledge integration practiced by some young people.</p> Joanne Muellenbach ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29529 Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 More DOIs are Accessed Through Library Discovery Services than Through Google https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29551 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Wang, X., Cui, Y., &amp; Xu, S. (2018). Evaluating the impact of web-scale discovery services on scholarly content seeking. <em>The Journal of Academic Librarianship</em>, <em>44</em>(5), 545-552. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2018.05.010">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2018.05.010</a> </p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To examine trends in digital object identifier (DOI) web referrals and explore the referring domains, especially those originating from web-scale discovery systems like ProQuest’s Summon and Primo.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– Log analysis and web traffic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – CrossRef, a web server that connects DOIs to the corresponding articles’ landing pages.</p> <p><strong>Subjects </strong>– Web traffic that passed through CrossRef between 2011 and 2016.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The researchers collected data from CrossRef using a web tool called Chronograph. The data captured information about the websites users were on when they requested a DOI (called the <em>referrer</em>) and about the time and date of each request.</p> <p>The researchers used time series analysis to discover longitudinal patterns in the data. Annual, monthly, and weekly trends were also examined with a seasonal adjustment model, a seasonal trend decomposition, and log transformation. They also isolated traffic from four institutions in Australia, Japan, Sweden, and the United States of America to determine if overall seasonal patterns were reflected locally.</p> <p>ProQuest websites were of particular interest to the researchers because they determined that it had the highest market share of discovery services. Much of the analysis focused on ProQuest’s serialsolutions.com, exlibrisgroup.com, and proquest.com website domains.</p> <p><strong>Main</strong> <strong>Results </strong>– ProQuest servers sent over 25 million DOI referrals through CrossRef – more than either Web of Knowledge (n=24.47 million) or Google (n=15.38 million).</p> <p>Referral traffic grew over the period with the sharpest growth rate occurring between 2011 and 2012. Of ProQuest’s domains, serialsolutions.com (Summon) had more traffic and more growth over the observation period than exlibrisgroup.com (Primo).</p> <p>In all of the years studied, the busiest months were September to November and January to March, while June to August and December were low points. Seasonal fluctuations were attributed to university vacation schedules as demonstrated in the traffic patterns of four ProQuest-subscribing institutions.</p> <p>Weekly trend analysis showed that Monday to Thursday had consistently heavy referral traffic. Of the remaining days, the fewest referrals were observed on Saturdays.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– DOI referrer traffic is closely tied to the university calendar. Library discovery products are used more frequently to access DOIs than Google.</p> Judith Logan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29551 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Green Deposit Rates in LIS Taylor & Francis Journals: Are Librarians “Practicing What They Preach?” https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29560 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Emery, J. (2017). How green is our valley: Five year study of selected LIS journals from Taylor &amp; Francis for green open access. <em>Insights</em>, <em>31</em>(23). <a href="http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.406">http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.406</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective – </strong>To investigate the green deposit rate for articles published in five Taylor &amp; Francis LIS journals.</p> <p><strong>Design – </strong>Content analysis.</p> <p><strong>Setting – </strong>The author conducted an analysis of the following journals: <em>Behavioral &amp; Social Sciences Librarian, Collection Management, College &amp; Undergraduate Libraries, Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em>Journal of Library Administration</em>.<em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Subjects – </strong>87 articles/columns in <em>Behavioral &amp; Social Sciences Librarian</em>, 78 in <em>Collection Management</em>, 134 in <em>College &amp; Undergraduate Libraries</em>, 108 in <em>Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship</em>, and 264 in <em>Journal of Library Administration</em>.<em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><strong>Methods – </strong>The author chose five Taylor &amp; Francis LIS journals to analyze over a period of five years for the green open access article deposit rate. The author selected Taylor &amp; Francis journals due to the publisher’s policy of not requiring an embargo period on LIS journals. The specific journal titles were selected based on the author’s perception of their relevance to a broad array of academic libraries. The author determined if green deposit had occurred by first using the “OA Button” on the article’s homepage to locate the full text. If nothing was found, the author then searched each author’s institutional repository using the DOI. If the full text was still not located using this method, then a Google Scholar search for the full text was performed.</p> <p><strong>Main Results – </strong>The author found that the full text was available for 22% of the 671 total articles included in the study, which was significantly below the author’s proposed success rate of 50%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion – </strong>The results of this study indicate that a relatively low number of articles in the LIS field are available via open access, even though there were no restrictions from the publisher on green deposits. Some potential influencing factors for the low deposit rate include lack of encouragement from administration on utilizing repositories, imposter syndrome, and a lack of awareness of Taylor &amp; Francis’s green deposit policies. The author recommends that librarians and their administrators support and encourage one another to make articles available via open access. The author also recommends that Taylor &amp; Francis further publicize this policy to make more authors aware of it.</p> Jessica A. Koos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29560 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Multidisciplinary Databases Outperform Specialized and Comprehensive Databases for Agricultural Literature Coverage https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29561 <p><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p>Ritchie, S. M., Young, L. M., &amp; Sigman, J. (2018). A comparison of selected bibliographic database subject overlap for agricultural information. <em>Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, 89</em>. <a href="http://doi.org/10.5062/F49Z9340">http://doi.org/10.5062/F49Z9340</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To determine the most comprehensive database(s) for agricultural literature searching.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Data collection and analysis was conducted using a modified version of the bibliography method, overlap analysis, chi square tests, and data visualization methods.</p> <p><strong>Setting </strong>– An academic library in the U.S.</p> <p><strong>Subjects </strong>– Eight commonly used bibliographic databases, including comprehensive agricultural indexes (AGRICOLA, AGRIS, and CAB Abstracts), specialized databases (BIOSIS Previews and FSTA), and multidisciplinary databases (Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – The researchers selected three review articles that represented sub-topics within the field of agriculture. Sources listed in the bibliographies of the three review articles were used to build a bibliographic citation set for analysis.</p> <p>Using a modified version of the bibliography method, 90 citations were randomly selected from the above-mentioned citation set. Researchers then turned to the 8 selected databases and searched for all 90 citations in each platform. Search queries were crafted in two ways: unique title strings in quotation marks and combinations of terms entered into the “title”, “keyword”, “journal source”, and “author” fields. Citations were considered to be covered in a database if the full bibliographic record was located using the above-mentioned search strategy.</p> <p>Next, chi square tests were used to evaluate if the expected number of citations from the sample group were found in each database or if the frequency differed between the eight databases. The overlap analysis method provided numerical representation of the degree of similarity and difference across the eight databases. Finally, data visualizations created in Excel and Gephi enhanced comparisons between the eight databases and highlighted differences that were not obvious based solely on the analysis of numerical data.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– Researchers found that comprehensive databases (AGRICOLA, AGRIS, and CAB Abstracts) were not in fact comprehensive in their coverage of agricultural literature. However, the results suggested that CAB Abstracts was more comprehensive than AGRICOLA or AGRIS, particularly in regard to its coverage of the sub-topics “agronomy” and “meat sciences”. However, coverage of the sub-topic “sustainable diets” lagged behind multidisciplinary databases, which may be explained by the fact that the topic is interdisciplinary in nature. The superior coverage of CAB Abstracts over other comprehensive databases is consistent with findings reported by Kawasaki (2004).</p> <p>The analysis of specialized databases (BIOSIS Previews and FSTA) suggested that citations within the scope of the database were covered very well, while those out of scope were not. For instance, the sub-topics “sustainable diets” and “meat science” are out of scope of the biological sciences and thus, were not well covered in BIOSIS.</p> <p>&nbsp;The multidisciplinary databases (Google Scholar, Scopus and Web of Science) provided the most comprehensive coverage agricultural literature. All three databases covered most citations included in the data set. However, researchers noted that all three databases provided weak coverage of trade published items, books, or older journals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – The study found that multidisciplinary databases provide close to full coverage of agricultural literature. In addition, they provide the best access to content that is interdisciplinary in nature. Specialized and comprehensive databases are recommended when research topics are within the scope of the database. Also, they best support in-depth projects such as bibliographies or comprehensive review articles.</p> Melissa Goertzen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29561 Thu, 13 Jun 2019 00:00:00 -0600