Evidence Based Library and Information Practice https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP en-US <p>The <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/">Creative Commons-Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike License 4.0 International</a> applies to all works published by <em>Evidence Based Library and Information Practice</em>. Authors will retain copyright of the work.</p> eblipjournal@gmail.com (EBLIP Editorial Team) eblipjournal@gmail.com (EBLIP Editorial Team) Wed, 14 Dec 2022 09:34:08 -0700 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Evidence Summary Theme: Management https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30275 Heather MacDonald Copyright (c) 2022 Heather MacDonald https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30275 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Library Instruction for Graduate Nursing Students: A Scoping Review https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30145 <p><strong>Objective </strong>– The number of graduate nursing programs in the U.S. has increased significantly in recent years. This scoping review seeks to examine the range of literature discussing librarian instruction for graduate nursing students to identity the types of studies being published, the characteristics of instructional sessions, knowledge gaps which may exist, and the evidence available for a subsequent systematic review evaluating instructional effectiveness.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– Guidelines established by the PRISMA statement for scoping reviews (PRISMA-Scr) were used to conduct this review. Concepts for library instruction and graduate nursing students were searched in six databases as well as Google Scholar. The two authors used titles/abstracts and when necessary, full-text to independently screen identified studies. Conflicting screening decisions were resolved by discussion.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>– Data was extracted from 20 sources. Thirteen of the sources were descriptions of classes or programs, one was a program evaluation, two were mixed methods studies that looked at library use and program support respectively but did not assess instruction, two were surveys of students’ feelings and attitudes about instruction, and two were quasi-experimental studies which included pre-post instruction quizzes. The most popular format for library instruction was online (synchronous or asynchronous) instruction. Most sources did not include information about the timing or duration of instruction. In addition, most sources did not reference instructional theory although a few mentioned aspects of instructional theory such as active learning. Only one source mentioned using a specific model to develop instructional content. While several sources mentioned assessment of student learning, only four studies included the results of assessment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions </strong>– Sources reporting on instruction for graduate nursing students consisted primarily of descriptions of programs or instructional sessions. Many of the descriptive studies lacked essential information such as specifics of format, timing, and duration which would aid replication at other institutions. Only four sources were research studies that evaluated instructional effectiveness.</p> Adelia Grabowsky, Katherine Spybey Copyright (c) 2022 Adelia Grabowsky, Katherine Spybey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30145 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Assessment of the Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL): Impact on the Research Productivity and Careers of Academic Librarians https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30094 <p><strong>Objective</strong> – This article reports the survey findings from a mixed-methods assessment of the six-year Institute for Research Design in Librarianship (IRDL). The Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS) provided funding for IRDL from 2014-2019; during this time, 124 academic and research librarians participated in a year-long continuing education program for novice researchers. This article assesses the effectiveness of IRDL in meeting short-term and long-term goals related to research productivity, job performance, and identity as a researcher. Beyond the assessment of IRDL itself, the study addresses the implications of IRDL for creating effective research continuing education programs and institutional support for librarian research.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – In the first part of a two-phase study, we surveyed all 124 librarians who completed the in-person summer research workshop and year-long online follow-up program. The lead researcher invited those who completed the survey to participate in the study's second phase, a focus group or an in-depth interview.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> – Eighty-nine participants responded to the survey, for a 72% response rate. The results show that IRDL was successful in helping a majority of participants complete their IRDL project and conduct new research. Participants reported work-related benefits of participating in the program, including tenure, rank promotion, merit-based salary increases, and new employment opportunities. IRDL contributed to developing personal learning networks, research collaborations, and a sense of identity as a researcher. IRDL increased the research confidence of the participants by providing them with research methods instruction, coupled with an opportunity to practice what they have learned during a year-long support program.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – This assessment study confirms that IRDL is an effective program for novice librarian-researchers who want to improve their research skills, develop new research relationships among their peers, and advance in their careers. It also provides insight into the conditions for a successful continuing education and research support program. Many librarians experience anxiety about conducting and disseminating their research; IRDL demonstrates the importance of placing novice researchers in a supportive environment, where research is viewed as a positive experience that is directly related to professional success. These experiences lead to increased confidence and identity as a researcher, which contributes to increased research productivity.</p> Frans Albarillo, Marie Kennedy, Kristine Brancolini Copyright (c) 2022 Frans Albarillo, Marie Kennedy, Kristine Brancolini https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30094 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Changes in the Library Landscape Regarding Visible Minority Librarians in Canada https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30151 <p><strong>Objective </strong>– As a follow-up to the first 2013 survey, the Visible Minority Librarians of Canada (ViMLoC) network conducted its second comprehensive survey in 2021. The 2021 survey gathered detailed information about the demography, education, and employment of visible minority librarians (VMLs) working in Canadian institutions. Data from the 2021 survey and the analysis presented in this paper help us better understand the current library landscape, presented alongside findings from the 2013 survey. The research results will be helpful for professional associations and library administrators to develop initiatives to support VMLs.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– Researchers created online survey questionnaires using Qualtrics XM in English and translated them into French. We distributed the survey invitation through relevant library association electronic mail lists and posted on ViMLoC’s website, social networking platforms, and through their electronic mail list. The survey asked if the participant was a visible minority librarian. If the response was “No,” the survey closed. Respondents indicating "Yes" were asked 36 personal and professional questions of three types: multiple-choice, yes/no, and open-ended questions.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>– One hundred and sixty-two VMLs completed the 2021 survey. Chinese remained the largest ethnic identity, but their proportion in the survey decreased from 36% in 2013 to 24% in 2021. 65% were aged between 26 and 45 years old. More than half received their library degree during the 2010s. 89% completed their library degree in Canada, a 5% increase from 2013. The majority of librarians had graduated from University of Toronto (25%), followed closely by University of British Columbia (23%), and Western University (22%). Only 3% received their library degree from a library school outside North America. 34% of librarians earned a second master’s degree and 5% had a PhD. 60% of librarians had less than 11 years of experience. Nearly half worked in academic libraries. Most were located in Ontario and British Columbia. 69% of librarians were in non-management positions with 5% being senior administrators. 25% reported a salary above $100,000. In terms of job categories, the largest group worked in Reference/Information Services (45%), followed by Instruction Services (32%), and as Liaison Librarians (31%). Those working in Acquisitions/Collection Development saw the biggest jump from 1% in 2013 to 28% in 2021. 58% of librarians sought mentoring support, of whom 54% participated in formal mentorship programs, and 48% had a visible minority mentor.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– 35% more VMLs responded to the 2021 survey compared to the 2013 survey. Changes occurred in ethnic identity, generation, where VMLs earned a Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) or equivalent degree, library type, geographic location, and job responsibilities. The 2021 survey also explored other aspects of the VMLs not covered in the 2013 survey, such as librarian experience, salary, management positions, and mentorship experience. The findings suggested that the professional associations and library administrators would need collaborative efforts to support VMLs.</p> Yanli Li, Maha Kumaran, Allan Cho, Valentina Ly, Suzanne Fernando, Michael David Miller Copyright (c) 2022 Yanli Li, Maha Kumaran, Allan Cho, Valentina Ly, Suzanne Fernando, Michael David Miller https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30151 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 A Mismatched Group of Items That I Would Not Find Particularly Interesting: Challenges and Opportunities with Digital Exhibits and Collections Labels https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30194 <p><strong>Objective </strong>– The authors sought to identify link language that is user-friendly and sufficiently disambiguates between a digital collection and digital exhibit platform for users from a R1 institution, or a university with high research activity and doctoral programs as classified in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The authors distributed two online surveys using a modified open card sort and reverse-category test via university electronic mailing lists to undergraduate and graduate students to learn what language they would use to identify groups of items and to test their understanding of link labels that point to digitized cultural heritage items.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>– Our study uncovered that the link terms utilized by cultural heritage institutions are not uniformly understood by our users. Terms that are frequently used interchangeably (i.e., Digital Collections, Digital Project, and Digital Exhibit) can be too generic to be meaningful for different user groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– Because the link terms utilized by cultural heritage institutions were not uniformly understood by our users, the most user-friendly way to link to these resources is to use the term we—librarians, curators, and archivists—think is most accurate as the link text based on our professional knowledge and provide a brief description of what each site contains in order to provide necessary context.</p> Mikala Narlock, Anna Michelle Martinez-Montavon, Melissa Harden Copyright (c) 2022 Mikala Narlock, Anna Michelle Martinez-Montavon, Melissa Harden https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30194 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Library Usage Study, the How and What: A Survey of Space Usage at a Mid-Sized Research Library https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30103 <p><strong>Objective </strong>– The research was conducted to understand better how and what spaces are used in a mid-size academic library. Also, the authors were interested in their users' spatial likes and dislikes and why they gravitated to or avoided specific spaces or floors. The authors also found an opportunity to examine recent renovations that added a connector bridge to a first-year student dorm and the subsequent increase in foot traffic to evaluate its success in meeting users' needs for varied and productive study spaces across the building.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The study used a survey to gauge user satisfaction with the library's space and environment for research, study, and collaborative work. The authors hand-distributed a survey with five multiple-choice and three open-response questions to users over three days (Monday-Wednesday) between 10 am - 4 pm, the busiest days and times in a typical week. The collected surveys were sorted and coded in an Excel spreadsheet and uploaded and analyzed in JMP Pro.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Results </strong>– The 298 completed responses came from undergraduate students (n=281) who visited the first floor, identified as a collaborative study space (n=144). Respondents showed that they visit the library daily (58%, n=173) and weekly (34%, n=104). Most of the survey participants (98%, n=293) indicated that they pursued academic work in quiet spaces they occupied (75%, n=224). Interestingly enough, the noisiest and quietest floors are the areas most avoided, the first floor-collaborative, noisiest space (54%, n=161) and the third floor-designated as quiet space (18%, n=55). The final survey question invited the respondents to "sound off," with 135 responding; 107 (79%) of them opined on improvements to existing study spaces within the library.</p> <p><strong> </strong><strong>Conclusion </strong>– This research demonstrated that students value the library as a place to study but are critical of excessive noise and overcrowding in the designated collaborative study areas. Academic libraries should consider balance when designing library study spaces. Librarians and space designers should strive to strike an appropriate balance between seating quality and quantity, acceptable noise levels in designated collaborative and quiet study spaces, and the impacts of environmental factors such as printers, food services, exhibits, art displays, restrooms, and walkways through library study spaces within the library.</p> Aaron Nichols, Paul Philbin Copyright (c) 2022 Aaron Nichols, Paul Philbin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30103 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Apply for the 2023 Research Training Institute Fellowship Program https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30274 Editorial Team Copyright (c) 2022 Editorial Team https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30274 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Call for Applicants for EBLIP Journal: Copyeditors https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30277 Editorial Team Copyright (c) 2022 Editorial Team https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30277 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Flexible Work Agreements: Here to Stay but Uneven in Equity and Promoting Success https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30200 <p><strong>A Review of:<br /></strong>Hosoi, M., Reiter, L., &amp; Zabel, D. (2021). Reshaping Perspectives on Flexible Work: The Impact of COVID-19 on Academic Library Management. <em>portal: Libraries and the Academy</em> <em>21</em>(4), 695-713. <a href="http://doi.org/10.1353/pla.2021.0038">doi:10.1353/pla.2021.0038</a></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – The article seeks to assess the current state and the future of flexible work agreements (FWAs) in research libraries.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– The authors held semi-structured interviews with 31 individuals in library leadership roles.</p> <p><strong>Setting </strong>– Large American or Canadian research libraries during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – 31 individuals in senior leadership roles (ex: associate dean, director) at the top 50 research libraries in North America (based on the Association of Research Libraries Investment Index).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Interviews were conducted and recorded over Zoom with participant, investigator, and note taker. Investigators developed a quantitative coding instrument based on a selection of the interviews, then coded all interviews independently. Coded data were evaluated for broader themes in a collaborative fashion.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – All participants had employees working partially or fully remotely at the time of the interviews. Half of participants observed gains in productivity during the pandemic, although even more commented on technology challenges. Other positives included remote project success and more inclusive meetings; other negatives included caregiving and job duties that did not allow for remote work.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – While FWAs were widely available pre-pandemic, they were not normative. The majority of participants think flexible work will only increase in libraries and will influence recruitment and retention of employees, as well as utilization of library space.</p> Samantha Kaplan Copyright (c) 2022 Samantha Kaplan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30200 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 The Causes and Consequences of Low Morale Amongst Public Librarians https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30219 <p><strong>A Review of:<br /></strong>Kendrick, K. D. (2020). The public librarian low-morale experience: A qualitative study. <em>Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research</em>, 15(2), 1-32.<a href="http://doi.org/10.21083/partnership.v15i2.5932"> http://doi.org/10.21083/partnership.v15i2.5932</a></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– To understand if, how, and within what parameters, librarians working in public libraries experience low morale.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– Semi-structured interview, phenomenology</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Public libraries in Canada and the United States</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – Participants (N = 20) were credentialed librarians who worked or had worked in a public library, and who experienced low morale due to their work. </p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Invitations were distributed to 10 electronic mailing lists. Purposive sampling was used to select the participants -- they represented librarians with a range of experience, working within a variety of specialties. The researcher received informed consent and the participants completed a short survey in order to collect demographic data before taking part in semi-structured interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded, after which data were analyzed and thematic clusters identified. </p> <p><strong>Main results</strong> – Various types of abuse, either performed by library users (ex. physical and verbal abuse), or by colleagues/managers/administrators (ex. emotional abuse, system abuse, and negligence) were revealed to cause low morale in public librarians. Data show that the participants' responses to the abuse influenced their affective, cognitive, and physiological well-being, as well as professional expectations and trajectories. This study identified three low morale impact factors and seven enabling systems that were unique to public librarians when compared to academic librarians. The unique impact factors are: personal safety, resilience narratives, and social contexts. The enabling systems are: organizational structure, library workplace culture, on-demand relocation, policies, training, equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI), and politics. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– This study builds on the literature and provides additional evidence on the prevalence of low morale in LIS workplaces. The data show that there are similarities in the causes and consequences of low morale in the workplace amongst public librarians and their academic counterparts. Understaffing, mission creep, and working with underserved and marginalized communities all play a part in the morale of public librarians. Low morale negatively affects public librarians’ mental and physical health, as well as their professional outlook and trajectory. The author makes a case for comprehensive leadership training for public library management, as well as the presence of people with different expertise (such as social workers and first responders) in public libraries. Additionally, the author suggests the need for further research on topics that came up in this study.</p> Andrea Miller-Nesbitt Copyright (c) 2022 Andrea Miller-Nesbitt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30219 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Agile Project Management Facilitates Efficient and Collaborative Collection Development Work https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30221 <p><strong>A Review of:<br /></strong>Stoddard, M. M., Gillis, B., &amp; Cohn, P. (2019). Agile project management in libraries: Creating collaborative, resilient, responsive organizations. <em>Journal of Library Administration</em>, <em>59</em>(5), 492–511. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/01930826.2019.1616971">https://doi.org/10.1080/01930826.2019.1616971</a></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To examine the advantages and obstacles of using Agile (an approach to project management) principles to guide collection development work in ways that allow libraries to better address user needs while increasing transparency and collaboration in their processes.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Descriptive case study.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Libraries at a private, R1 university (doctoral university – very high research activity).</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – Five cross-disciplinary teams of three to six people, with each team focusing on a separate strategic aspect of library collections work (Communications and Data Visualization, E-Resource Contract Negotiation, Serials Workflow Analysis, Demand Driven Acquisitions, and Serials Budget Projection &amp; Assessment).</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The authors facilitated group reflection sessions for the teams to surface outcomes of employing Agile practices and also as a means through which they could learn from their experiences with Agile. The teams engaged in reflection throughout the year-long process where they were asked to share their work, respond to the work of the other teams, and contemplate their own learning and development as a member of a team. <strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– Using Agile principles to structure and direct collection development work allowed the libraries to meet their stated goals of spending all available funds on relevant materials within the time frame allotted. This style of collaborative work benefitted from recognition of interrelated information needs, willingness to prioritize experimentation over seeking formal training, centering user needs in planning stages, and practicing reflection as a powerful learning tool. Additionally, the authors noted a strengthening of core skills held in high value throughout libraries, such as leadership and project management. Task-oriented skills that included capabilities like data visualization and operational analysis also progressed through learning by working on cross-functional teams. The authors offered guidance for applying these lessons to situations in other libraries that can be generalized to fit other projects.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Based on their experiences with adopting Agile practices, the authors offered scalable approaches for implementing Agile that speak to employee buy-in and the overall impact of projects undertaken in this manner. Training that reflects a library’s authentic level of investment in Agile, whether minimal or extensive, is crucial to realizing positive outcomes. The authors also recognized that resistance to change and discomfort with working under transparent conditions will present challenges for many libraries in aligning workflows with Agile methodology. However, Agile did allow for positive shifts toward more investment in shared work on team and individual levels. While failure in Agile projects is more visible and therefore more intimidating, librarians can find themselves able to learn from and correct mistakes more efficiently.</p> Abbey Lewis Copyright (c) 2022 Abbey Lewis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30221 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Library Leadership Faced Numerous Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30228 <p><strong>A Review of:<br /></strong>Shaghaei, N., Knowles, C., Morley, F., Eveleigh, A., Casaldàliga, N., Nolin, E., Tatai, A., Cohen, M., Pronk, M., &amp; Ghesquière, E. (2022). Library resilience and leadership in a global crisis. <em>LIBER Quarterly: The Journal of the Association of European Research Libraries</em>, <em>32</em>(1), 1-21. <a href="https://doi.org/10.53377/lq.10930">https://doi.org/10.53377/lq.10930</a></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To investigate the experiences, perceptions, and principles put into action by library leaders during the COVID-19 crisis.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Survey questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – European organization of research libraries webinar series.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – Webinar attendees and viewers of recorded webinar series.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – In November 2020, the authors conducted two webinars titled “How are Research Libraries leading through COVID-19?” and “New challenges and leading into the post-</p> <p>COVID Recovery for Research Libraries” for the fifth cohort of the LIBER Emerging Leaders’ Programme. The authors drew on their own experiences, addressing leadership in a time of crisis, the challenges of remote leadership, and how to create clarity, build resilience, and catalyze positive change. The webinars were shared with previous cohorts of the LIBER Emerging Leaders’ Programme. Following the webinars, a link to an online survey was emailed to attendees and previous Emerging Leaders, as well as shared on social media. The survey was anonymous, open for a total of 21 days, and included a cover letter that stated its purpose. There were nine survey questions, eight of which were open-ended. The survey questions were grouped into four webinar themes; communication, strategy, values, and changes made during the Covid-19 pandemic that library leaders would like to keep.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – The total number of respondents was 24; 84% were in leadership roles and 16% were employed as professional librarians. Respondents were asked if their library’s strategic goals were still broadly relevant and asked to provide examples for how their existing strategies influenced their research library’s responses to the coronavirus crisis. Of the respondents, 91% felt that their library’s strategic goals remained relevant during the coronavirus crisis. This was mainly due to the transformation to digitization (30%) and user-centered services (28%) that had occurred prior to the pandemic: digital resources, virtual training, the promotion of open access materials, more electronic books, digital services, and scan and deliver. Respondents reported more user-centered strategies such as new reservation systems for study places, computer loans, click-and-collect, and postal loan. Library values that were challenged during the pandemic were reported in the following categories: user-based (32%), collaboration (21%), social responsibility (21%), openness (16%), and collections or access (10%). Within the theme of communication, 41% described it as negative which was defined as difficult, challenging, insufficient, overwhelming, chaotic, bad, or erratic. Challenges of using online tools to communicate were described in categories of quality (24%), informal exchange (19%), time (21%), skills (17%), technical issues (9%), and leadership and personal issues (10%). The main challenges in communication related to not being able to interpret body language and non-verbal communication, lack of informal conversations or spontaneous interactions, increased time invested working, being permanently connected, difficulty acquiring the skills needed to use various tools, and the technological problems that exist when the network is interrupted. Advantages noted with online communication tools were efficiency and accessibility. When asked for examples of techniques or methods used to communicate with staff, most reported communication as formal (70%) using tools such as Slack, Microsoft Teams Planner, Jamboard, and whiteboards, while 22% of respondents reported informal communication strategies such as coffee via zoom, video lunches, informal mails, and a reading club.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in many challenges for research libraries that included maintaining strategic goals and values, communication, hybrid working, and flexible work schedules.</p> Kathy Grams Copyright (c) 2022 Kathy Grams https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30228 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Approaches to Negotiating Change Through Evolving Library Management Styles in Australian University Libraries https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30239 <p><strong>A Review of:<br /></strong>Gunapala, M., Montague, A., Reynolds, S., &amp; Vo-Tran, H. (2020). Managing change in university libraries in the 21<sup>st</sup> century: An Australian perspective. <em>Journal of the Australian Library and Information Association</em>, <em>69</em>(2), 191-214. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/24750158.2020.1756598">https://doi.org/10.1080/24750158.2020.1756598</a></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – Investigating current change management practices to create a conceptual management framework for the 21<sup>st</sup> century.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– Interviews using a qualitative constructivist approach.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Australian university libraries.</p> <p><strong>Subjects </strong>– Chief university librarians of 18 public universities out of 37 in Australia.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Chief university librarians in more than half of the public university libraries in Australia were interviewed. The interviews were completed face-to-face using a semi-structured questioning approach, based on themes and concepts derived from the literature review. Observation data were also gathered through physical visits to the libraries. The data analysis was conducted using two Microsoft Excel matrices, one grouped thematically and the other populated with relevant literature review commentary when it aligned with interviewee commentary. The conceptual framework used to guide the research is made up of six fundamentals of performance improvements to effectively manage change: resources, relevance, stakeholders, strategy, government policy, and university infrastructure. The research focused on current change management practices of chief librarians as they address these issues.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– The research revealed that the influence of, or the relationship between, the factors affecting changing university library environments creates a complex administrative environment where decision making addressing one of the fundamentals can have negative unintended consequences in one or more of the other key areas. The authors note that the literature and views of the informants show a change in the objectives of the future academic library characterized by, but not limited to, initiatives that are designed to meet changing needs of a diverse group of stakeholders. These objectives must be “innovative” and “add value to the university business rather than continue to do what was traditionally done” (Gunapala et al., 2020, p. 203).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – The authors profess that the study provides theoretical insight to help library leaders address the many challenges currently in place and emerging across the Australian university library landscape. They assert that the research reveals the need to shift focus from a more traditional transactional oriented model to an engagement orientated model, due to the introduction of market forces coupled with declining public funding. They conclude by claiming to provide a theoretical framework that when practically implemented will allow library leaders to successfully navigate and negotiate emerging changes across the spectrum of higher education.</p> David Dettman Copyright (c) 2022 David Dettman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30239 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700 Library Staff Morale Correlates with Having a Sense of Respect and Value for Their Work, Relationship to Direct Supervisors and Colleagues, and Autonomy and Flexibility in Their Work Environments https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30240 <p><strong>A Review of:<br /></strong>Glusker, A., Emmelhainz, C., Estrada, N., &amp; Dyess, B. (2022). “Viewed as equals”: The impacts of library organizational cultures and management on library staff morale. <em>Journal of Library Administration, 62</em>(2), 153–189. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/01930826.2022.2026119">https://doi.org/10.1080/01930826.2022.2026119</a></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To explore what library organizational factors influence library staff morale.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Semi-structured interview, grounded theory.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Academic libraries across the United States during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – 34 academic library staff, defined by the authors as employees whose positions do not require an MLIS degree and do not include the title “librarian”, from 23 private and public colleges and universities across 16 states, mostly representative of the West and Midwest regions.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – In 2020, the authors emailed a call for study participants to library listservs and state library associations across the US, selected a convenience sample of 34 library staff from academic institutions, and conducted structured interviews by phone or by Google Meet over the course of May through June 2020. The authors note that the sample over-represents public and larger institutions in the West and Midwest regions. A student worker transcribed the audio recordings and de-identified transcripts underwent iterative, thematic coding in MAXQDA, a qualitative data analysis tool. The authors used a grounded theory approach to conduct open coding, then identified relationships between themes, and elaborated upon each theme based on its relationship to a theoretical model of morale impact avenues in library organizational structures, which was developed by one of the authors.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>–The authors uncovered that most study participants (n = 21) reported having high levels of morale, a surprise to the research team who expected that participants with lower levels of morale would participate in the study. Most participants (n = 27) worked in public and larger institutions, and the majority were female (n = 24), though only 5 were Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC). Participants mostly had MLIS degrees or other advanced degrees. The results of the study expanded beyond the original research questions to comprise a broader set of factors that impact morale levels including relationships with colleagues and direct managers, opportunities for advancement, respect, work autonomy, and funding. Respondents emphasized that staff morale was significantly impacted by their relationship with direct managers, noting that micromanagement, defensiveness, and lack of accommodations contributed to lower levels of morale and a sense of disconnection. Managers who were supportive, advocated for staff needs, and were good listeners improved morale. Relationships between staff and their librarian colleagues also impacted morale, with the librarian–staff divide and treatment of staff by librarians being major contributors to influencing morale. Additionally, staff felt that having or lacking respect from librarians and administration and having autonomy and flexibility in their work made a big impact on morale. Having opportunities to meaningfully engage, to advance in the workplace, to receive professional development funding, to participate in decision-making processes, and to feel valued by the institution contributed to higher levels of staff morale.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Library staff morale is impacted mostly by staff members’ sense of connection, respect, and value within the institution and among their librarian colleagues, direct managers, and library administration. Having pathways for advancement and professional development, meaningful opportunities to contribute to institutional decision-making, and autonomy over their professional and personal lives contributed to a higher sense of staff morale. The authors highlight several practical recommendations for improving staff morale including fostering a respectful environment, advocating for more flexible and better work environments, and providing opportunities for professional development and growth.</p> Eugenia Opuda Copyright (c) 2022 Eugenia Opuda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/30240 Wed, 14 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0700