Evidence Based Library and Information Practice https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP en-US <p>The <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/">Creative Commons-Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike License 4.0 International</a> applies to all works published by <em>Evidence Based Library and Information Practice</em>. Authors will retain copyright of the work.</p> lorie.kloda@concordia.ca (Lorie Kloda) rhinrich@iupui.edu (Rachel Hinrichs, Production Editor) Fri, 15 Mar 2019 08:34:05 -0600 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial Responsibilities https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29566 ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29566 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Exploring the Impact of Individualized Research Consultations Using Pre and Posttesting in an Academic Library: A Mixed Methods Study https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29500 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective – </strong>Academic librarians consistently offer individualized help to students and researchers. Few studies have empirically examined the impact of individualized research consultations (IRCs). For many librarians, IRCs are an integral part of their teaching repertoire. However, without any evidence of an IRC’s effectiveness or value, one might ask if it’s worth investing so much time and effort. Our study explored the impact of IRCs on students' search techniques and self-perceived confidence levels. We attempted to answer the following questions: 1) Do IRCs improve students’ information searching techniques, including the proper use of keywords and/or subject headings, the accurate use of Boolean operators, and the appropriate selection of specialized resources/databases? 2) Do IRCs influence students’ confidence level in performing effective search strategies?</p> <p><strong>Methods – </strong>Our study used a mixed-methods approach. Our participants were students from the Faculties of Health Sciences and Medicine at the University of Ottawa, completing an undergraduate or graduate degree, and undertaking a research or thesis project. Participants were invited to complete two questionnaires, one before and one after meeting with a librarian. The questionnaires consisted of open-ended and multiple choice questions, which assessed students' search techniques, their self-perceived search techniques proficiency and their confidence level. A rubric was used to score students' open-ended questions, and self-reflective questions were coded and analyzed for content using the software QSR NVivo.</p> <p><strong>Results – </strong>Twenty-nine completed pre and posttests were gathered from February to September 2016. After coding the answers using the rubric, two paired-samples t-tests were conducted. The first t-test shows that students’ ability to use appropriate keywords was approaching statistical significance. The second t-test showed a statistically significant increase in students’ ability to use appropriate search strings from the pretest to the posttest. We performed a last paired-samples t-test to measure students’ confidence level before and after the appointment, and a statistically significant increase in confidence level was found.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion – </strong>Out of three paired t-tests performed, two showed a statistically significant difference from the pretest to the posttest, with one t-test approaching statistical significance. The analysis of our qualitative results also supports the statement that IRCs have a positive real impact on students’ search techniques and their confidence levels. Future research may explore specific techniques to improve search strategies across various disciplines, tips to improve confidence levels, and exploring the viewpoint of librarians. &nbsp;</p> Lindsey Sikora, Karine Fournier, Jamie Rebner ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29500 Wed, 13 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Women in Adult Education Program for Sustainable Development: Challenges and Implications for Library and Information Services https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29366 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – Education offers advances in human and social development. It provides knowledge and resources that hold the potential for economic empowerment, resulting in a better livelihood. Hence, women need access to education with library services, if they are to have a voice, participate in sustainable development, and take care of their own health, as well as that of their children and members of their households. This paper examines the challenges women encounter in Onitsha metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria. This study seeks to gain insight into the resources used to enhance learning, as well as the students’ perceptions and satisfaction with their learning experience.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – A descriptive survey research design was used. The study was carried out in five adult education centres in the city with a sample size of 120 women, randomly selected for collection of data. Questionnaire, interview, and observation methods were employed. The physical assessment of the centres was done for an evidence based report and to assess the real situations of the centres.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong> – The findings show the challenges faced by Nigerian women in their pursuit of ongoing adult education included: time for the classes which are usually held in the evening, poor financial status, lack of encouragement from spouses and relations, poor learning environments, and stress. The data were analyzed using percentages and frequency counts. They are presented in tables and figures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> – It is recommended that education and library management should assess these centres for program improvements like providing more enabling environments and learning facilities. The implication of the study is that library and information services should be extended to these women to stimulate and support learning with the right attitude for active involvement in the educational activities and for enhancement of social inclusion.</p> Ngozi Perpetua Osuchukwu, Ndidiamaka Lucy Nebolise ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29366 Fri, 08 Feb 2019 00:00:00 -0700 Relevance of a French National Database Dedicated to Infection Prevention and Control (NosoBase®): A Three-Step Quality Evaluation of a Specialized Bibliographic Database https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29448 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– NosoBase® is a collection of documentation centres with a national bibliographic database dedicated to infection prevention and control (IPC), with over 20 years of experience in France. As a quality assurance activity, this study was conducted in 2017 with a three-step approach to evaluate the bibliographic database regarding (1) the availability and coverage of citations; (2) the scope and relevance of content; and (3) the quality of the documentation centre services.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The three-step quality approach involved (1) evaluating the availability and coverage of citations in NosoBase® by searching for the bibliographic citations of three systematic reviews on hand hygiene practices, published recently in three different peer-reviewed international journals; (2) evaluating the scope and relevance of content in NosoBase® by searching for all documents from 2015 indexed in NosoBase® under hand hygiene related keywords, and analyzing according to publication language, document type (e.g., legislation, research, or guidelines), and target audience; and 3) evaluating the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities of the documentation centre services, with interviews involving the librarians.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong>– NosoBase® contained 70.8%-80.9% of references directly concerning hand hygiene cited by the three systematic reviews. Of the 200 articles indexed in NosoBase® under hand hygiene related keywords in 2015, 22.5% were French language based, with a significant representation of French non-indexed literature. The analysis of the documentation centre services highlighted future opportunities for growth, building on the strengths of experience and collaborations, to improve marketing and usability, targeting francophone IPC professionals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– Specialized bibliographic databases may be useful and time efficient for the retrieval of relevant specialized content. NosoBase® has significant relevance to French and francophone healthcare professionals in its representation of French documentation and healthcare literature not otherwise indexed internationally. NosoBase® needs to highlight its resources and adapt its services to allow easier access to its content.</p> Kae Ting Trouilloud, Nathalie Sanlaville, Sandrine Yvars, Anne Savey ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29448 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Dealing with Misquotations Constructively https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29493 <p>No abstract.</p> Pablo Millares-Martin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29493 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Interviews with Library Directors Suggest That Political Capital is Linked to Reputation https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29535 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">O'Bryan, C. R. (2018). The influence of political capital on academic library leadership.&nbsp;<em>Library Leadership &amp; Management, 34</em>(4). Retrieved from&nbsp;<a href="https://journals.tdl.org/llm/index.php/llm/article/view/7292">https://journals.tdl.org/llm/index.php/llm/article/view/7292</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To understand how library directors use political capital to overcome challenges and reach goals in their libraries. The author defines political capital as social power that is amassed through reputation and alliance building. This social power can be used to influence decisions and change at an organizational level.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Narrative interview.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – A large state university system in the Northeastern United States of America. The system includes a network of 64 independent campuses serving different communities with a total population of 460,000 undergraduate and 420,000 graduate students.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – 12 library directors from within a single state university system.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – The author conducted in-depth narrative interviews with participants focusing on critical incidents throughout their careers and recent events. The author used restorying, reorganizing the data into chronological order before coding, and thematic analysis, using a software program to code the data and then revisit all the data with finalized codes to make any adjustments.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – Several themes emerged in the interview data including interactions with administration, methods for building political capital, applying and using political capital, and building reputation. Within the interactions with administration theme, the author observed a strong connection in the hierarchy of the institution. Directors expected a high level of engagement and support from their direct reports and felt that providing this type of work to University administration would provide a return on investment for the library in terms of budget and support for new efforts or HR challenges. The theme of administrative turnover emerged as a possible barrier to establishing this relationship. In terms of building political capital, most participants did not set out to do this purposefully but instead sought to develop a reputation as a "team player" willing to participate in campus-wide initiatives and who would return positive outcomes. Participants expressed that it was difficult to know how much political capital they had acquired until they attempted to use it towards a goal. Eight of the participants provided narratives that included applying and using political capital, with two reporting that their political capital diminished after they had applied it towards a goal. Other participants suggested that applying political capital increased their store when it was spent toward accomplishing higher-profile goals. The importance of communication was clear in the building reputation theme, several participants indicated that their communication skills helped establish a reputation for competence and credibility in interactions both up and down the chain of command. Communication was a key factor in developing relationships across the institution, particularly with high-level administrators, and developing relationships was another area of importance for participants.</p> <p>Two of the participants indicated that they had and used political capital in specific areas and for smaller, day-to-day changes. Eight participants used their political capital for bigger initiatives, such as budget, human resources, and library space.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – While a few of the directors explicitly linked their activities to political capital and felt that applying their political capital increased their standing with stakeholders, most participants did not generally link the development of political capital to individual events. Instead, they suggested that generally establishing reputation and trust through excellent communication and relationship building would help them achieve success toward their goals.</p> Laura Costello ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29535 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Library Staff are More Motivated to Engage in Professional Development When Encouraged by Library Leadership https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29534 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Johannessen, H. T. D. (2018). The need to grow, learn and develop – how does management affect motivation for professional development?&nbsp;<em>LIBER Quarterly, 28</em>(1), 1–16.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.18352/lq.10238">https://doi.org/10.18352/lq.10238</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– This study explores whether there is a correlation between academic library leaders’ support for professional development and their employees’ professional self-esteem and motivation to participate in professional development.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– Survey questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Setting </strong>– Academic libraries in Norway.</p> <p><strong>Subjects </strong>– 1,637 full time equivalent (FTE) staff.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The theoretical framework for this study is knowledge management. The author defines this as “The creation and subsequent management of an environment which encourages knowledge to be created, shared, learnt, enhanced, and organized for the benefit of the organization and its customers” (Sarrafzadeh, Martin, &amp; Hazeri, 2006, p. 624, quoted on p. 3). An anonymous quantitative survey was made available to staff working in Norwegian academic libraries. The survey included questions about to what extent their leader encourages them to attend conferences, to what extent their leader understands their skills and competencies, personal belief in their own skills and competencies to perform their work tasks, and number of professional development activities they attended in 2015 (including conferences, continuing education seminars, and interdepartmental seminars).</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– 626 survey responses were collected, for a 38% response rate. The responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Over 50% of all survey respondents reported high satisfaction with their professional skills and competencies. There is a difference when broken down by gender, with 77% of men reporting confidence in their professional skills versus 63% of women. Education level, on the other hand, does not make a difference. The study found a correlation between perception by library staff that their library leader has a “good overview” of their professional skills and staff members’ confidence in their ability to perform their job well. Library staff with leaders who encouraged professional development were more likely to participate in external professional development activities. Participation in internal professional development activities was not affected by library leaders’ encouragement.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– When library staff are encouraged by library leadership to participate in professional development, they are more likely to do so. Library staff who perceive that their library’s leaders recognize and value their professional skills and competencies have a higher sense of professional self-esteem. Library leaders can use knowledge management to come to a better understanding of the knowledge and skills their staff members already possess, and to encourage communities of practice and the sharing of knowledge in the organization. This recognition can result in employees who are happier and more motivated to learn.</p> Hilary Bussell ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29534 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Collaborative and Interactive Teaching Approaches have a Positive Impact on Information Literacy Instruction Supporting Evidence Based Practice in Work Placements https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29530 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Kolstad, A. (2017). Students’ learning outcomes from cross-collaborative supervision in information seeking processes during work placements.&nbsp;<em>Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, 9</em>(1), 2-20.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.15845/noril.v9i1.231">https://doi.org/10.15845/noril.v9i1.231</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– To analyze the effect of collaborative interdisciplinary teaching and supervision using physical and digital tools on students’ information literacy (IL) and evidence based practice (EBP) abilities.</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– Qualitative and quantitative text analysis.</p> <p><strong>Setting </strong>– Learning Centre at Oslo University College and student work placements in Oslo, Norway.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – Approximately 400 students enrolled in the undergraduate nursing degree programme.</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– The author is a librarian and project manager of the Langerud project, an initiative wherein nursing students were jointly trained and supervised by nurse educators, nurse supervisors, and librarians in preparation for and during work placements over an eight-week period. In this role, the librarian author collected 36 student group assignments, 285 blog/wiki comments from students, nurse educators, nurse supervisors, and librarians, and 102 individual student logs written during six work placements between Spring 2010 and Spring 2012, which were posted in a learning management system (LMS), as well as in an evaluation form from Spring 2010. The unstructured text is analyzed according to how the students fulfilled the learning outcome of integrating steps zero to four of the seven-step EBP model: (1) Cultivate a spirit of inquiry; (2) Ask clinical questions in the PICO format; (3) Search for the best evidence; (4) Critically appraise the evidence; and (5) Integrate the evidence with clinical expertise and patient preferences and values. The logs are also analyzed quantitatively to measure if and how many students combined the three aspects of EBP - defined as being the practitioner’s individual expertise, best research evidence, and client values and expectations. Lastly, the author seeks to evaluate the role of the LMS as a mediating tool.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– The author found that the majority (83%) of students successfully met the learning outcome, particularly for steps 1, 2, and 5. For step three, the author observed that some students did not apply PICO in the information-seeking process and were thus not sufficiently thorough in their searching. For step four, the author found that most students failed to demonstrate critical appraisal of the evidence and that many struggled to find up-to-date research findings. The author noted that the results for both steps three and four could be attributed to the students finding international databases and English-language research articles too challenging, given the language barrier. The author’s analysis of the logs reveals that two-thirds of the students combined the 3 aspects of EBP and that 39% described 1 or 2 aspects, of which most described user-based knowledge and experience-based knowledge. One department produced twice as many log entries as the other seven departments; in this department, students were able to choose what aspect of EBP to focus on and the librarian had a co-teaching role in that learning group. Overall, 60% of all students described research-based knowledge, which increased over time from 46% in Spring 2011, to 60% in Autumn 2011, and 83% in Spring 2012. On the evaluation form from Spring 2010, most students rated the supervision by and satisfaction with the nurse educator, nurse supervisor, and librarian as good, very good, or excellent, and many commented that the LMS was a useful learning platform.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– The author concludes that the project had a positive impact on students’ preparedness for work placements and that the early educational intervention improved IL and EBP competencies. Furthermore, the working relationship between the Nursing Department and Library was strengthened. After the Langerud project ended, the curriculum was revised to add more searching for research-based information in written assignments. Additionally, a lecture on EBP was developed based on real-life experiences from the project and delivered collaboratively by the project’s manager, a nurse educator, and a librarian.</p> Kelley Wadson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29530 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Naming Specific Adverse Effects Improves Relative Recall for Search Filters Identifying Literature on Surgical Interventions in MEDLINE and Embase https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29537 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Golder, S., Wright, K., &amp; Loke, Y.K. (2018). The development of search filters for adverse effects of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and Embase.&nbsp;<em>Health Information and Libraries Journal</em>,&nbsp;<em>35</em>(2), 121-129.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/hir.12213">https://doi.org/10.1111/hir.12213</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– “To develop and validate search filters for MEDLINE and Embase for the adverse effects of surgical interventions” (p.121).</p> <p><strong>Design </strong>– From a universe of systematic reviews, the authors created “an unselected cohort…where relevant articles are not chosen because of the presence of adverse effects terms” (p.123). The studies referenced in the cohort reviews were extracted to create an overall citation set. From this, three equal-sized sets of studies were created by random selection, and used for: development of a filter (identifying search terms); evaluation of the filter (testing how well it worked); and validation of the filter (assessing how well it retrieved relevant studies).</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Systematic reviews of adverse effects from the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), published in 2014.</p> <p><strong>Subjects </strong>– 358 studies derived from the references of 19 systematic reviews (352 available in MEDLINE, 348 available in Embase).</p> <p><strong>Methods </strong>– Word and phrase frequency analysis was performed on the development set of articles to identify a list of terms, starting with the term creating the highest recall from titles and abstracts of articles, and continuing until adding new search terms produced no more new records recalled. The search strategy thus developed was then tested on the evaluation set of articles. In this case, using the strategy recalled all of the articles which could be obtained using generic search terms; however, adding specific search terms (such as the MeSH term “surgical site infection”) improved recall. Finally, the strategy incorporating both generic and specific search terms for adverse effects was used on the validation set of articles. Search strategies used are included in the article, as is a list in the discussion section of MeSH and Embase indexing terms specific to or suggesting adverse effects.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– “In each case the addition of specific adverse effects terms could have improved the recall of the searches” (p. 127). This was true for all six cases (development, evaluation and validation study sets, for each of MEDLINE and Embase) in which specific terms were added to searches using generic terms, and recall percentages compared.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong>– While no filter can deliver 100% of items in a given standard set of studies on adverse effects (since title and abstract fields may not contain any indication of relevance to the topic), adding specific adverse effects terms to generic ones while developing filters is shown to improve recall for surgery-related adverse effects (similarly to drug-related adverse effects). The use of filters requires user engagement and critical analysis; at the same time, deploying well-constructed filters can have many benefits, including: helping users, especially clinicians, get a search started; managing a large and unwieldy set of citations retrieved; and to suggest new search strategies.</p> Ann Glusker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29537 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Much Library and Information Science Research on Open Access is Available in Open Access, But There Is Still Room to Grow https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29531 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Chilimo, W. L., &amp; Onyancha, O. B. (2018). How open is open access research in library and information science?&nbsp;<em>South African Journal of Libraries &amp; Information Science, 84</em>(1), 11-19.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.7553/84-1-1710">https://doi.org/10.7553/84-1-1710</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To investigate the open access (OA) availability of Library and Information Science (LIS) research on the topic of OA, the relative openness of the journals in which this research is published, and the degree to which the OA policies of LIS journals facilitate free access.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Bibliometric, quantitative dataset analysis.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – African academic library and information science department.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – 1,185 English-language, peer-reviewed articles published between 2003 and 2013 on OA and published in journals indexed by three major LIS databases, of which 909 articles in the top 56 journals received further analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Authors first searched LIS indexes to compile a dataset of published articles focusing on OA. They then manually identified and evaluated the OA policies of the top 56 journals in which these articles were found. The openness of these journals was scored according to a rubric modified from the Scholarly Publishing and Academic resources Coalition’s (SPARC’s) 2013 OA spectrum. Finally, authors manually searched Google Scholar to determine the OA availability of the articles from the dataset.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – Of the 909 articles published in the top 56 journals, 602 were available in some form of OA. Of these, 431 were available as gold copies and 171 were available as green copies. Of the 56 journals evaluated for openness, 13 were considered OA, 3 delayed OA, 27 hybrid/unconditional post-print, 2 hybrid/conditional post-print, and 11 had unrecognized OA policies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – The increasing amount and significance of LIS research on OA has not directly translated to the comprehensive adoption of OA publishing. Although a majority of the articles in the dataset were available in OA, the authors indicate that some measures of OA adoption and growth assessed in this study are only somewhat higher than in other disciplines. The authors call upon LIS professionals to become more conversant with journals’ OA policies. An acknowledgement that not all LIS scholars researching OA are necessarily advocates thereof led the authors of this study to recommend further investigation of OA research not available in OA to shed light on those scholars’ perceptions and preferences.</p> Rachel Elizabeth Scott ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29531 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Lexicomp Provides More Comprehensive Drug Information than Wikipedia in Small Sample Comparison https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29541 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Hunter, J. A., Lee, T., &amp; Persaud, N. (2018). A comparison of the content and primary literature support for online medication information provided by Lexicomp and Wikipedia.&nbsp;<em>Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 106</em>(3), 352-360.&nbsp;<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2018.256">http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2018.256</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To compare the content veracity and comprehensiveness of Lexicomp and Wikipedia with respect to drug information.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Comparative study.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – Lexicomp and Wikipedia.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Five of the six most commonly prescribed medications in Canada were selected for content comparison in both Lexicomp and Wikipedia (levothyroxine, atorvastatin, pantoprazole, acetylsalicylic acid, and metformin). Three categories compared included dose and instructions, uses, and adverse effects or warnings; sixteen subcategories were identified to provide further comparative detail. Five outcomes were assessed using a rating scale to identify the presence or absence of each subcategory for each drug entry: present in neither source, present in Wikipedia but not Lexicomp, present in Lexicomp but not in Wikipedia, present in both without discrepancies, and present in both with discrepancies. The only subcategory meeting the criteria for “present in both with discrepancies” for all five medications was adverse reactions, indicating that the information in each resource differed. A “fact-checking literature search” in MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as searches in the USFDA Prescribing Information (supplemental index) (FDA PIs) and the FDA Adverse Events Reporting Systems (FDAERS) were used to determine the veracity of the discrepancies. Quantitative assessment was used to determine how comprehensive the entries were in terms of the number of times in which each resource provided subcategory information. Adverse reaction information was expressed as a percentage based on the number of adverse reactions identified in the sources.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – Overall, Lexicomp was shown to provide more comprehensive information than Wikipedia. In the subheading analysis, there was no instance in which Wikipedia contained information while Lexicomp did not, while in over half of instances Lexicomp only contained the information. 18% of subheading information was found in both with discrepancies and 20% was found in both without discrepancies. Only 10% of instances were not present in Lexicomp or Wikipedia. Detailed dosing information was consistently present in Lexicomp for all five medications while only general dosage information was present in just two instances in Wikipedia.</p> <p>Of all the subcategory comparisons, adverse reactions was the only one identified as “present with discrepancies” for all medications being compared; MEDLINE, EMBASE, FDA PIs and the FAERS dashboard searches were performed for a total of 309 discrepant adverse reactions. 63% (191/302) of the adverse reactions listed in Lexicomp were supported by the literature retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE compared to 100% (7/7) of those listed in Wikipedia. Of the Lexicomp adverse reactions unsupported by the peer-reviewed literature, 17% were supported from information found in FDA PIs and 90% supported from information found in the FAERS dashboard. A “substantial proportion” of adverse events listed in Lexicomp were not supported in any retrieved literature.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Based on the comparative criteria, drug information in Lexicomp for the five medications was found to be more comprehensive than Wikipedia. Adverse effects listed in Lexicomp did not always have corresponding support in the published peer-reviewed literature.</p> Lindsay Alcock ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29541 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Researchers May Need Additional Data Curation Support https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29539 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Johnston, L. R., Carlson, J., Hudson-Vitale, C., Imker, H., Kozlowski, W., Olendorf, R., &amp; Stewart, C. (2018). How important are data curation activities to researchers? Gaps and opportunities for academic libraries.&nbsp;<em>Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication, 6</em>(1), 1-24.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2198">https://doi.org/10.7710/2162-3309.2198</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective </strong>– To identify the data curation activities most valued by researchers at universities.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Focus group and survey instrument.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Six R1: Doctoral Universities in the United States of America that are part of a Data Curation Network (DCN) project to design a shared data curation service.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – 91 researchers, librarians, and support staff.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – The authors used focus group methodology to collect data about valued data curation activities, current practices, and satisfaction with existing services or activities. Six focus groups were conducted at participants’ places of employment. Participants reviewed a list of 35 possible data curation activities, including documentation, data visualization, and rights management. A card-swapping exercise enabled subjects to rank the most important issues on a scale of 1-5, with “most important” activities becoming the subject of a facilitated discussion. In a short paper-based survey, participants also noted whether a data curation practice is in place at their institution, and their satisfaction with the practice.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – Twelve data curation activities were identified as “highly rated” services that academic institutions could focus on providing to researchers. Documentation, Secure Storage, Quality Assurance, and Persistent Identifier were the data curation activities that the majority of participants rated as “most important.” Participants identified the data curation practices in place at their institutions, including documentation (80%), secure storage (75%), chain of custody (64%), metadata (63%), file inventory or manifest (58%), data visualization (58%), versioning (56%), file format transformations (55%), and quality assurance (52%). Participants reported low levels of satisfaction with their institutions’ data curation activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Academic libraries have an opportunity to develop or improve existing data curation services by focusing on the twelve data curation activities that researchers, staff, and librarians value but that could be implemented in a more satisfactory way. The authors conclude that their organization, the Data Curation Network, has an opportunity to improve data curation services or to offer new or expanded services.</p> Robin E. Miller ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29539 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Data Librarians’ Skills and Competencies Are Heterogeneous and Cluster into Those for Generalists and Specialists https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29516 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Federer, L. (2018). Defining data librarianship: A survey of competencies, skills, and training.&nbsp;<em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em>&nbsp;<em>106</em>(3), 294–303.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2018.306">https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2018.306</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To better define the skills, knowledge, and competencies necessary to data librarianship.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Electronic survey.</p> <p><strong>Setting</strong> – Unknown number of research institutions in English-speaking countries with a focus on North America.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – Unknown number of information professionals who follow data-related interest group electronic mail lists or discussions on Twitter.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – Author distributed an electronic survey via electronic mail lists and Twitter to information professionals, particularly those in biomedicine and the sciences, who self-determined that they spend a significant portion of their work providing data services. The survey asked respondents to rate the importance of various skills and expertise that had been selected from a review of the literature. In addition to other quantitative analysis, author performed cluster analysis on the final dataset to detect subgroups of similar respondents.</p> <p><strong>Main Results</strong> – 82 valid responses were received. Most respondents supported more than one academic discipline and spent at least half of their time on data-related work. Competencies in the “Personal Attributes” category (such as interpersonal, written, and presentation skills) were rated as most important, while those in the “Library Skills” category were rated as least important. A cluster analysis detected two groups that could best be described as subject specialists and data generalists. Subject specialists focus on a smaller number of disciplines and view a smaller number of tasks as important to their work compared to data generalists. In addition, data generalists are more likely to report spending most of their time on data-related work.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Data librarianship is a heterogeneous profession with many skillsets at play depending on the work environment, but the existence of two overarching subgroups – subject specialists and data generalists – deserves further study and may have implications for a number of stakeholders. Hiring institutions may consider the breadth of their user population’s needs before recruitment. Educational institutions as well as other on-the-job training opportunities may do well to focus more on “soft skills” as this is deemed more important by data librarians.</p> Scott Goldstein ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29516 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600 Librarians’ Reported Systematic Review Completion Time Ranges Between 2 and 219 Total Hours with Most Variance due to Information Processing and Instruction https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29525 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>A Review of:</strong></p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">Bullers, K., Howard, A. M., Hanson, A., Kearns, W. D., Orriola, J. J., Polo, R. L., &amp; Sakmar, K. A. (2018). It takes longer than you think: Librarian time spent on systematic review tasks.&nbsp;<em>Journal of the Medical Library Association</em>,<em>&nbsp;106</em>(2), 198-207.&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2018.323">https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2018.323</a></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective</strong> – To investigate how long it takes for medical librarians to complete steps toward completion of a systematic review and to determine if the time differs based on factors including years of experience as a medical librarian and experience completing systematic reviews.</p> <p><strong>Design</strong> – Survey research as a questionnaire disseminated via email distribution lists.</p> <p><strong>Setting </strong>– At institutions that are members of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) and librarians at Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) or American Osteopathic Association (AOA) member institutions.</p> <p><strong>Subjects</strong> – Librarians of member institutions who have worked on systematic reviews.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong> – On December 11, 2015, AAHSL library directors and librarian members of AAMC and AOA were sent the survey and the recommendation to forward the survey to librarians on staff who have worked on systematic reviews. Reminders were sent on December 17, 2015, and the survey closed for participation on January 7, 2016. Participants who had worked on a systematic review within the past five years were asked to indicate experience by the number of systematic reviews completed, years of experience as a medical librarian, and how much time was spent, in hours, on the following: initial consultations/meetings; developing and testing the initial search strategy; translating the strategy for other databases; documenting the process; delivering the search results; writing their part of the manuscript; other tasks they could identify; and any instruction (i.e., training they provided to team members necessary for completion of the systematic review). Participants also further broke down the amount of their time searching, by percentage of time, in various resources, including literature indexes/databases, included studies’ references, trial registers, grey literature, and hand searching. Participants were also given space to add additional comments. The researchers reported summary statistics for phase one and, for phase two, excluded outliers and performed exploratory factor analysis, beginning with principal components analysis (PCA), followed by a varimax rotation, to determine if there was a relationship between the time on tasks and experience.</p> <p><strong>Main Results </strong>– Of the 185 completed responses, 105 were analyzed for phase one because 80 responses were excluded due to missing data or no recent experience with a systematic review. The average respondent had between 1 and 6 years of experience: 1-3 years in librarianship (49.5%) and 4-6 years (23.8%). The time reported for completion of all tasks ranged from 2 to 219 hours with a mean of 30.7 hours. Most of the variance (61.6%) was caused by “information processing” and “interpersonal instruction/training” components. Search strategy development and testing had the highest average time at 8.4 hours. Within that category, databases accounted for 78.7% of time searching, followed by other searching methods. For remaining systematic review tasks, their averages were as follows: translating research (5.4 hours), delivering results (4.3 hours), conducting preliminary consultations (3.9 hours), instruction (3.8 hours), documentation (3.0 hours), additional tasks that were written-in by respondents (2.2 hours), and writing the manuscript (1.8 hours). The most common written-in tasks were development of inclusion/exclusion criteria, critical appraisal, and deduplication. Other write-ins included retrieving full-text articles, developing protocols, and selecting a journal for publishing the systematic review.</p> <p>For the second phase of analysis, 12 responses were excluded as extreme outliers, and the remaining 93 responses were analyzed to detect a relationship between experience and time on task. Prior systematic review experience correlated with shorter times performing instruction, consultation, and translation of searches. However, librarian years of experience affected the percentage of time on task, where greater years of experience led to more time spent consulting and instructing than the percentage for librarians with fewer years of experience. Librarians with greater than 7 years of experience skewed trends toward shorter time on task, and, with their data excluded, years of experience showed weak positive correlation with instruction and consultation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> – Because the average librarian participating on systematic review teams has had few prior experiences and because the times can vary widely based on assigned roles, duties, years of experience, and complexity of research question, it is not advised to establish expectations for librarians’ time on task. This may be why library administrators have disparate expectations of librarians’ involvement in systematic reviews and find it difficult to allocate and anticipate staff time on systematic review projects. While it may not be possible to set specific overarching guidelines for librarians’ expected time on systematic review tasks, librarian supervisors and library directors planning for their staff to offer systematic review services should work to develop extensive understanding of the steps for conducting and assessing systematic reviews in order to better estimate time commitments.</p> Peace Ossom Williamson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/eblip/index.php/EBLIP/article/view/29525 Thu, 14 Mar 2019 00:00:00 -0600