INvoke https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/invoke/index.php/invoke The Sociology Undergraduate Journal, invoke, is a student run journal intended to display the works of undergraduate students' scholarly works. en-US <h4><span style="font-weight: normal;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></h4><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> romanik@ualberta.ca (Victoria Romanik) romanik@ualberta.ca (Victoria Romanik) Mon, 10 Jul 2017 16:16:38 -0600 OJS 3.1.0.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Adaptive Reuse of Sport Stadiums and Collective Memories: Rexall Place as a Site for the Continuation of the Oilers Dynasty and Civic Pride https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/invoke/index.php/invoke/article/view/29329 <p>Sports stadiums work to shape the identity of cities and reflect their cultural attitudes. From the Luzhniki Sports Complex’s material representation of Soviet Russia’s political leanings and ideologies to the Houston Astrodome’s display of technological advancement, stadia architecture has strong connections to regional zeitgeists. In this paper, I explain the importance of stadia architecture and how it is embedded in the collective memories of sports fans and citizens. As well, I explain how stadia architecture carries political and social consequences. Adaptive reuse or demolition of abandoned stadia also carries social and political consequences as stadia have the ability to embody the social history and civic imagination of their cities. I then present the case of Edmonton's Rexall Place arena, and provide an account of why it is important to repurpose the structure as a place for hockey. Ultimately Edmonton's collective memories and identity are held within the cement walls of Rexall Place, and the demolition of the structure would be detrimental to the hockey-centric civic identity and history.</p> SUSA Submissions, Alec Skillings ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/invoke/index.php/invoke/article/view/29329 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 16:16:38 -0600 The Overrepresentation of Aboriginal Women in Prisons: A Cycle of Victimization, Discrimination and Incarceration https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/invoke/index.php/invoke/article/view/29330 <p>This paper examines the contemporary issue of the overrepresentation of Aboriginal women in Canadian prisons and suggests that the systemic discrimination and myriad disadvantages that these women face, both within the context of the justice system and in society in general, results in an ongoing cycle of victimization and offending. Specifically, this paper addresses the historical and contemporary forms of violence and victimization that these women face, and examines the impact that this victimization has on offending behaviors. Finally, through an exploration of policing practices, and the complex issue of sentencing Aboriginal offenders, this paper concludes that Aboriginal women are severely disadvantaged at all stages of the criminal justice system, largely as a result of pervasive cultural stereotypes, resulting in worse outcomes for these offenders, and ultimately contributing to the issue of overrepresentation.</p> SUSA Submissions, Alysa Holmes ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/invoke/index.php/invoke/article/view/29330 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 16:16:38 -0600 Redefining Mandatory Vaccination as Necessary to Life and the Refusal of Vaccination as Criminal Negligence Causing Death https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/invoke/index.php/invoke/article/view/29331 <p>This paper argues that childhood vaccination should be considered a necessary of life as defined in Section 215 (1) of the Canadian Criminal Code, and parents who do not vaccinate their children should be considered responsible for death by criminal negligence if their child dies from a preventable disease. It timelines the long history of the vaccine debate from the perspective of both science of skeptics and points to the since-retracted Wakefield paper as the catalyst for the re-emergence of this debate, detailing the science behind why vaccination is safe, effective, and necessary. It then outlines the theory of medical neglect as a form of indirect killing in the same way starvation or lack of shelter is currently considered neglect under the Code, to prove that vaccination is required for all children who can be vaccinated and the dangers of not doing so. It concludes with notes on disease prevention and education to increase the number of vaccinated children, as the goal of defining vaccination as a necessary of life is not meant to punish parents but to encourage higher rates of vaccination and a greater communal knowledge of medical procedures.</p> SUSA Submissions, Cody Bondarchuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/invoke/index.php/invoke/article/view/29331 Mon, 10 Jul 2017 16:16:38 -0600