Exploring the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Internationally Educated Nurses (IENs) in Saskatchewan.
Keywords:Information-seeking behaviour, information needs, information literacy, evidence based nursing practice, evidence informed nursing, nurses, registered nurses, internationally educated registered nurses, IEN, foreign nurses, foreign-educated nurses, o
Abstract: Introduction: To explore the information seeking behavior of Internationally Educated Nurses (IENs) and to investigate their exposure to libraries and library training in both their home countries and after being hired in Saskatchewan. Methods: This two-phase multi-method project was carried out in Saskatchewan, Canada. A questionnaire was developed based on survey instruments used in previously conducted studies on the topic. Librarians in two academic institutions assisted with validation of the survey. In Phase 1, data were collected via an online questionnaire from IENs in three health regions: Saskatoon, Regina, and Sunrise. In Phase 2, the study was expanded to IENs in all the health regions in the province. The same questionnaire from Phase 1 was used during telephone interviews with participants. Results: A total of 17 IENs responded (Phase 1, n = 9, Phase 2, n = 8). Results show that IENs, although interested in looking for information for their practice, are hindered by a lack of knowledge of how and where to seek relevant clinical information as well as a lack of library training. As a result, their main source of information is the Internet (Google). Discusion: Despite barriers such as time to information seeking, results revealed that given the opportunity IENs would like to receive library training to enhance their information seeking skills.
1. Health Canada. Internationally educated health care professionals 2010 [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: Government of Canada [cited 25 Oct 2014]. Available from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hcs-sss/hhr-rhs/strateg/init-prof-educ/index-eng.php.
2. Jermyn D. Search abroad pays off for Saskatchewan hospitals. The Globe and Mail (Ontario Ed.). 2010 Apr 8: 2010: Sect: Business. Available from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/search-abroad-pays-off-for-saskatchewan-hospitals/article4188998/.
3. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Regulated nurses: Canadian trends, 2006–2010 [Internet]. Ottawa, ON: CIHI [cited 12 Mar 2014]. Available from: https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/RegulatedNursesCanadianTrends2006-2010_EN.pdf.
4. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Canada's regulated nursing workforce. [Internet]. Ottawa,ON: CIHI [cited 12 Mar 2014]. Available from: http:/www.cihi.ca/cihi-ext-portal/xlsx/internet/nursing_2012_profiles_en.
5. Zizzo KA, Xu Y. Post-hire transitional programs for international nurses: a systematic review. J Conti Edu Nur. 2009;40(2):57–64. quiz 5-6. PMID: 223313000; 19263926.
6. College of Nurses of Ontario. New members in the general class 2013 Ontario: College of Nurses of Ontario; 2014 [Internet]. Toronto, ON: College of Nurses of Ontario [cited 15 Oct 2014]. Available from: http://www.cno.org/Global/docs/general/43011_TrendsNewMembers.pdf.
7. Shaffer FA, Dutka J. Global mobility for internationally educated nurses: challenges and regulatory implications. J Nurs Regul. 2013;4(3):11–6. PMID: 2012322603.
8. Sherman RO, Eggenberger T. Transitioning internationally recruited nurses into clinical settings. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2008;39(12):535. PMID: 2010128946. doi: 10.3928/00220124-20081201-03.
9. Nwagwu WE, Oshiname R. Information needs and seeking behaviour of nurses at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Afr J Libr Arch Inf Sci. 2009;19(1): 25–38.
10. Pajarillo E. The use and evaluation of search databases by professional nurses: a case study. Electr Lib. 2001;19:296–306. doi: 10.1108/EUM0000000006096.
11. Medical Library Association. What is health information literacy? [Internet]. Chicago, IL: Medical Library Association; 2015 [cited 4 Jan 2015]. Available from: https://www.mlanet.org/resources/healthlit/define.html.
12. Dee CR, Stanley EE. Nurses' information needs. J Hosp Librariansh. 2005;5(2):1–13. doi: 10.1300/J186v05n02_01.
13. Association of College and Research Libraries. Information literacy competency standards for nursing [Internet]. Chicago, IL: American Library Association; 2013 [cited 25 Oct 2014]. Available from: http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/nursing.
14. Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL). Information literacy competency standards for higher education [Internet]. Chicago: IL: ACRL; 2000 [cited 13 Sep 2014]. Available from: http://www.ala.org/acrl/standards/nursing.
15. Eizenberg M. Implementation of evidence-based nursing practice: nurses' personal and professional factors? J Adv Nurs. 2011;67(1):33–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05488.x.
16. Cullum N, Ciliska D, Marks S, Haynes B. Evidence-based nursing: an introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing; 2008. 312 p.
17. Scott K, McSherry R. Evidence-based nursing: clarifying the concepts for nurses in practice. J Clin Nurs. 2009;18(8):1085–95. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02588.x.
18. Heater B, Becker A, Olson R. Nursing interventions and patient outcomes: a meta-analysis of studies. Nurs Res. 1988;37(5):303–7.
19. Clarke MA, Belden JL, Koopman RJ, Steege LM, Moore JL, Canfield SM, et al. Information needs and informationseeking behaviour analysis of primary care physicians and nurses: a literature review. Health Info Librar J. 2013;30(3): 178–90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hir.12036.
20. Kelham C. Health care librarians and information literacy: an investigation. Health Info Librar J. 2014;31(3):235–8. doi: 10.1111/hir.12071.
21. Saskatchewan Registered Nurses Association (SRNA). Standards and Foundation Competencies for the Practice of Registered Nurses [Internet]. Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada: SRNA; 2013 [cited 25 Oct 2014]. Available from: http://www.srna.org/images/stories/Nursing_Practice/Resources/Standards_and_Foundation_2013_06_10_Web.pdf.
22. Government of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan in Brief [Internet]. Saskatcheawn, Canada: government of Saskatchewan; 2014. [cited 3 Feb 2014]. Available from: http://www.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN =f80c0ebb-f1c6-497e-8bc0-30c215a5441f.
23. Government of Saskatchewan. Health System 2012 [Internet]. Saskatchewan, Canada: Government of Saskatachewan; 2012 [cited 3 Feb 2014]. Available from: http://www.gov.sk.ca/Default.aspx?DN=f80c0ebb-f1c6-497e-8bc0-30c215a5441f.
24. Saskatchewan Health Information Resources Program. Strategic plan 2011–2014 [Internet]. SHIRP; 2010. [cited 3 Feb 2014]. 2010. Available from: http://www.shirp.ca/sites/www.shirp.ca/files/web/SHIRP_2011-14_Strategic_Plan.pdf.
25. Newman KM, Doran D. Critical care nurses' informationseeking behaviour during an unfamiliar patient care task. Dynamics. 2012;23(1):12–7. PMID: 2011478911.
26. Spenceley SM, O'Leary KA, Chizawsky LLK, Ross AJ, Estabrooks CA. Sources of information used by nurses to inform practice: an integrative review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2008;45(6):954–70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.06.003.
27. Kawi J, Xu Y. Facilitators and barriers to adjustment of international nurses: an integrative review. Int Nurs Rev. 2009;56(2):174–83. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-7657.2008.00705.x.
28. Edwards PA, Davis CR. Internationally educated nurses' perceptions of their clinical competence. J Cont Educ Nurs. 2006;37(6):265–9. PMID: 223324616; 17144116.
29. Xu Y PhD RN. Strangers in strange lands: a metasynthesis of lived experiences of immigrant Asian nurses working in western countries. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2007;30(3):246–65. doi: 10.1097/01.ANS.0000286623.84763.e0.
30. Kolawole B. Ontario's internationally educated nurses and waste in human capital. Int Nurs Rev. 2009;56(2):184–90.
31. Neiterman E, Bourgeault IL. Cultural competence of internationally educated nurses: assessing problems and finding solutions. Can J Nurs Res. 2013;45(4):88–107. PMID: 24617282.
32. Lum L, Dowedoff P, Bradley P, Kerekes J, Valeo A. Challenges in oral communication for internationally educated nurses. J Transcult Nurs. 2015;26(1):83–91. doi: 10.1177/1043659614524792.
33. Thekdi P, Msn RN, Wilson B, PhD RNC, Xu Y, PhD RN, et al. Understanding post-hire transitional challenges of foreigneducated nurses. Nurs Manage. 2011;42(9):8–14. PMID: 21873842. doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000403285.34873.c7.
34. Xu Y, Gutierrez A, Kim S. Adaptation and transformation through (un)learning: lived experiences of immigrant Chinese nurses in US healthcare environment. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2008;31(2):E33–47. PMID: 18497580. doi: 10.1097/01.ANS.0000319570.99254.e5.
35. Calliste A. Antiracism organizing and resistance in nursing: African Canadian women. Can Rev of Socio. 1996;33(3): 361–90. PMID: 13001628.
36. McGuire M, Murphy S. The internationally educated nurse: well-researched and sustainable programs are needed to introduce internationally educated nurses to the culture of nursing practice in Canada. Can Nurse. 2005;101(1):25–9. PMID: 2005050539.
37. Yi M, Jezewski MA. Korean nurses' adjustment to hospitals in the United States of America. J ANS Adv Nurs. 2000;32(3):721–9. PMID: 2000076462. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01533.x.
38. Salami B, Nelson S. The downward occupational mobility of internationally educated nurses to domestic workers. Nurs Inq. 2014;21(2):153–61. doi: 10.1111/nin.12029.
39. Xu Y, Gutierrez A, Kim SH. Adaptation and transformation through (un) learning: lived experiences of immigrant Chinese nurses in US healthcare environment. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2008;31(2):E33–E47. PMID: 18497580. doi: 10.1097/01.ANS.0000319570.99254.e5.
40. Aboderin I. Contexts, motives and experiences of Nigerian overseas nurses: understanding links to globalization. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(12):2237–45. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.01999.x.
41. Larsen JA. Embodiment of discrimination and overseas nurses' career progression. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(12):2187–95. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02017.x.
42. Adeniran RK, Smith-Glasgow ME, Bhattacharya A, Xu Y. Career advancement and professional development in nursing. Nurs Outlook. 2013;61(6):437–46. PMID: 23910927. doi: 10.1016/j.outlook.2013.05.009.
43. Alexis O, Vydelingum V, Robbins I. Engaging with a new reality: experiences of overseas minority ethnic nurses in the NHS. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(12):2221–8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02080.x.
44. Gerrish K, Griffith V. Integration of overseas Registered Nurses: evaluation of an adaptation programme. J Adv Nurs. 2004;45(6):579–87. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02949.x.
45. Xu Y, He F. Transition programs for internationally educated nurses: what can the United States learn from the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada? Nurs Econ. 2012;30(4): 215–23. 39. PMID: 1037800878; 22970552.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.