A Prophetic Reflection on Divine Forgiveness: The Integration of the Book of Jonah into the Book of the Twelve

  • Jakob Wöhrle


It has often been recognized that the book of Jonah as well as several other passages in the Book of the Twelve are influenced by the so called "grace formula" ("Gnadenformel") from Exod 34:6-7 (Joel 2:12-14; Jon 3:9; 4:2; Mic 7:18-20; Nah 1:2b, 3a; Mal 1:9a). But up to now the redactional relationship of these passages and their intention in the context of the book of the Twelve have only been defined inadequately. The article shows that the redaction responsible for the final redactional stage of the book of Jonah and for the integration of this book into the book of the Twelve, is also responsible for Joel 2:12-14; Mic 7:18-20; Nah 1:2b, 3a; Mal 1:9a. Because of this redaction the Book of the Twelve can be read as a reflection on the conditions, the theological reasons and the limits of divine forgiveness.