Evaluating Nicotine Abstinence, Smoking Cessation, Reduction and its Relapsed Among Electronic Cigarettes Single and Dual Malaysian Users: A One Year Observational Study
Purpose: Evidence for the complete nicotine cessation is inadequate among electronic cigarettes (ECs) single users (SUs, use only ECs), and dual users (DUs, use both ECs and conventional cigarettes (CCs). The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the nicotine cessation among SUs and DUs who used ECs over one year. Methods: We observed 70 SUs and 148 DUs for 52 weeks and tested their exhaled carbon monoxide and saliva cotinine to confirm their complete nicotine cessation status through cotinine in saliva. Safety issues were to be identified through self-report. Smoking cessation, CCs reduction of ≥ 50%, and relapsed to CCs smoking and safety issues were also documented. Results: The nicotine cessation rate was higher in SUs then DUs (15.9% vs. 6.8%; P = 0.048; 95% CI (2.328-0.902). A similar result for smoking cessation (34.8% SUs vs. 17.1% DUs; P = 0.005; 95% CI: 2.031-0.787), whereas CCs ≥ 50% reduction was 23.3% DUs vs 21.7% SUs (P = 0.863; 95% CI :1.020-0.964). Relapse to CC smoking was 47.3% in DUs versus 30.4% in SUs (P = 0.026; 95% CI: 1.555-0.757). The adverse effects reported were coughing and breathing problems, whereas craving smoking was documented as a major withdrawal symptom. Smoking-related diseases were also identified, five in DUs and two in SUs, during the one-year study period. Conclusions: Study showed SUs achieved higher complete nicotine and smoking cessation rates as compared to DUs. However, the rates of reduced CC use were not different between both the groups. No serious adverse effects related to the sole use of ECs were detected. However, the safety of the sole use of ECs in absolute terms needs to be further validated in different populations.
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