Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and their Effects on the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2

Authors

  • Hamed Gilzad-Kohan Western New England UniversityCollege of PharmacyDepartment of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences
  • Fakhreddin Jamali Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0277-853X

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18433/jpps31346

Abstract

COVID-19 infection is associated with systemic inflammation, and sometimes hyperinflammatory responses with cytokine storm. This plays a major role in COVID-19 severity and poor disease prognosis, even death. Higher levels of inflammatory hallmarks including C-reactive protein, ferritin, D-dimers, and cytokines such as interleukin (IL) -6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) have been reported. Many anti-viral drugs have been tried, but none were proven fully effective. Supportive care and management of the complications that are caused mainly by inflammation might be the key to greater survival rates and shorter hospitalization (e.g., the use of remdesivir, lopinavir, ritonavir, umifenovir (arbidol), oseltamivir, ganciclovir, favipiravir, darunavir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, colchicine, azithromycin, anakinra, canakinumab, tocilizumab, siltuximab, sarilumab, Type 1 interferon, interferon β-1a, interferon α-2b, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, fedratinib, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone). However, the efficacy of these treatments still needs well-planned clinical trials. In such trials, careful attention must be paid to the duration of the treatment, the onset of beneficial effects, and the severity of the disease, otherwise, the outcomes may still remain inconclusive. Herein, we present a review of the current drugs, which are being used in the management of the disease and their anti-inflammatory properties. We also investigated if these drugs directly interact with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE 2), which is a crucial component of the virus entry to the cells.

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Author Biography

Hamed Gilzad-Kohan, Western New England UniversityCollege of PharmacyDepartment of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences

Department of Pharmaceutical and Administrative Sciences

Assistant Professor

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Published

2020-07-30

How to Cite

Gilzad-Kohan, H., & Jamali, F. (2020). Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Drugs Used to Control COVID-19 and their Effects on the Renin-Angiotensin System and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-2 . Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, 23(1), 259-277. https://doi.org/10.18433/jpps31346

Issue

Section

Review Articles