Research progress on vesicle cycle and neurological disorders
Neurons are special polarized cells whose synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, acting on postsynaptic receptors and thus transmitting information from presynaptic to postsynaptic states. The integrity of the vesicle cycle is critical to the transmission of neural signals in the brain. According to the molecular mechanism of calcium-triggered release, the assembly of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) is required in the process of synaptic vesicle fusion and vesicle exocytosis. Many delicate steps are required to maintain the dynamic process of ‘release-recycle’, including intermediate processes and the dynamic balance of neurotransmission. Various neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases result from synaptic cycle dysfunction. This review of the relationships between the structure and function of synaptic vesicles in physiological and pathological conditions provides a theoretical basis for synaptic transmission and a novel avenue for the study of synaptic plasticity associated with mood disorders, highlighting potential targets for treating diseases.
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