Assessing the Elevation of Cardiac Biomarkers and the Severity of COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-analysis
ABSTRACT - Purpose: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 infection has become a global pandemic. The cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related acute cardiac injury with unknown pathophysiologic mechanism has become increasingly prevalent. However, it is not yet understood how the extent of cardiac injury differs with the intensity of viral infection. In the current study, we aimed to assess the association between elevated cardiac biomarkers and the severity of COVID-19 infection. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed across PubMed and Embase databases from December 1, 2019 to July 10, 2020, to identify studies that reported cardiac biomarkers of troponin (TnI) and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) in patients with COVID-19. These studies compared non-severe patients with severe patients, or survivors with non-survivors or medical patients with critically ill patients. The data were extracted for TnI, CK-MB, N-terminal-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-BNP), D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Wherever possible, the data were pooled for meta-analysis (Review Manager, RevMan. version 5.3) with standard or weighted mean or median difference and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: A total of 25 studies involving 5,626 patients were included in the present analysis. More severe COVID-19 infection was found to be associated with higher mean values of TnI (-0.54 [-0.72, -0.36]) (ng/mL), CK-MB (-1.55 [-2.23, -0.88]) (ng/mL) and (-4.75 [-13.31, 3.82]) (units/L), NT-BNP (-815.7 [-1073.97, -557.42]) (pg/mL), D-dimer (-1.4 [-2.04, -0.77]) (mcg/mL), and LDH (-176.59 [-224.11, -129.06]) (units/L), as well as CRP (-64.03 [-68.88, -59.19]) (mg/L) and IL-6 (-22.59 [-29.39, -15.79]) (pg/mL). Conclusions: There is significant association between elevated cardiac biomarkers and the severity of COVID-19, which underlines the increased risk of acute cardiac injury with more severe viral infection. This highlights the need to understand the cardiac history among the COVID-19 patients during initial assessment and for monitoring.
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