Predictors of Pharmacy Students’ Intentions to Monitor Diabetes

Lisa M Guirguis1, Betty A Chewning2, Mara A Kieser2

1University of Alberta
2University of Wisconsin-Madison


PURPOSE: This research explores predictors of pharmacy students’ adoption of one specific behavior, monitoring diabetes ABCs (A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol) in the community pharmacy. Specifically, this research assessed which student situation and attitudinal factors are predictors of students’ intentions and behavior in asking patients about the diabetes targets and goals as per a conceptual model.
METHODS: Data was drawn from a randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of the diabetes check in pharmacy students during their community pharmacy clerkships. A survey measured students’ self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, role beliefs, mattering as well as students’ experiences with the Diabetes Check and intentions to routinely monitor diabetes. Stepwise hierarchical multiple linear regression reflected the conceptual model and was used to assess the research questions.
RESULTS: Survey response rate was 94% and analysis was performed on a sample of 118 students. In summary, pharmacy students’ intentions and monitoring behaviors were predicted by the students’ situation and attitudes. Specifically, students’ intentions to ask patients about the diabetes ABCs were predicted by pharmacy site counseling, monitoring role beliefs, self-efficacy, and positive outcome expectancies (F(7, 109)=21.39, p<0.001, adjusted R2=0.58). Mattering predicted intentions, but differently in each study group. Behavior in asking about patients with diabetes about blood pressure and cholesterol was predicted by pharmacy site counseling, self efficacy, and monitoring role beliefs (F(3,112)=29.4, p<0.001, adjusted R2=0.43). Students’ behavior in asking about A1c was pharmacy site counseling, self efficacy, and monitoring role beliefs in additional to completing the Diabetes Check assignment (F(4,110)=19.8, p<0.001, adjusted R2=0.40).
CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring intentions and behaviors were consistently predicted by pharmacy site counseling, monitoring role beliefs, and self-efficacy and future research investigating the pharmacy students' behavior should include these variables. The role of mattering and outcome expectancies in predicting monitoring intentions requires further study.

J Pharm Pharm Sci, 12 (1): 33-45, 2009

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