Political Science Undergraduate Review 2020-04-02T19:01:02-06:00 Abigail Kohler Open Journal Systems <p>The Political Science Undergraduate Review (PSUR) is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes scholarly work done by University of Alberta undergraduates in the field of political science. We have two objectives: to give undergraduate students a chance to have their scholarly work published and recognized and to involve students in the process of peer-review. Our mission is to publish an annual edition that gives students the opportunity to publish some of their written work -- a beneficial asset when applying to grad school or future job opportunities. We encourage all students, especially those who have never published before, to submit work they want to share. Published by the Political Science Undergraduate Association.</p> Make Canada Great Again: The Influence of Donald Trump on the Canadian Right Wing Identity 2020-04-02T18:59:47-06:00 Parul Singh Kanwar <p>This essay examines how the election of Donald Trump and the Ring Wing sentiments in American politics affect the Right-Wing extremist identity in Canada. This<span style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;is significant because, through an analysis of the impact of American politics and identity on Canadians and their experiences as Anti-American, with focus on superiority and multiculturalism.&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-04-01T21:27:04-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Parul Singh Kanwar The Role of Gender Stereotypes in a Political Campaign: 2020-04-02T18:59:22-06:00 Brianna Morrison <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine gender stereotypes as a mechanism that maintains the under representation of women within elected office. Focusing exclusively on American politics, this paper will explore the barriers female candidates face in running for office. In 2019, the percentage of women holding seats is 23.7 %. This statistic indicates that women occupy 127 of the 535 seats in Congress. Although a record breaking high, this amount still remains far from achieving parity within Congress. To explore women’s under representation, I ask what is the impact gender stereotypes have on a female’s candidacy? Exploring how gender stereotypes influence both voter preferences and the attitudes of party leaders, I predict that gender stereotypes can discourage both voters and party leaders from pursuing female candidates. Based on my research findings, I argue that the gender gap in political representation is in fact largely rooted in the campaign process that has and continues to present barriers for women seeking elected office.</p> 2020-04-01T21:30:15-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Brianna Morrison Red Toryism and Neo-Liberalism in Alberta Conservative Party Ideology 2020-04-02T18:58:57-06:00 Trista Peterson <p>This paper explores the topic of Alberta conservatism and how economic conditions influence elections. Through a survey of Alberta general elections dating from 1971 to 2019, this paper surveys the pattern of election red tory governments in times of economic wellbeing and neo-liberal governments when the economy is unstable.</p> 2020-04-01T21:32:14-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Trista Peterson Universe of Support: Suburban Voters in Canadian Federal Elections 2020-04-02T18:58:31-06:00 Seeon Smith <p><strong>This chapter reviews the position of suburban voters within Canadian federal elections. In response to the impression that federal elections are won and lost in the greater Toronto area I ask - how do suburban voters factor into the campaign strategies of political parties? I examine the significance of suburban voters, emphasizing those in Toronto, as a contested demographic. I draw attention to the allocation of campaign resources through analysis of the 2019 party leader tours of the Liberals, Conservatives, and New Democrats. This is supplemented by an analysis of party platforms from 2008, 2011, 2015, and 2019 as a measure of campaign marketing. In doing so, I seek to address the nature of Canadian elections and normatively reflect on the consequences of this nature.</strong></p> 2020-04-01T21:37:22-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Seeon Smith Youth Enfranchisement: A Case For A More Democratic Canada 2020-04-02T18:58:06-06:00 Leonard Patterson <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Despite granting its citizens universal suffrage, Canada continues to experience declining numbers in voter turnout (Achen, 2019). As fewer Canadians choose to participate in the electoral process, the very foundations of liberal democracy come into question as the legitimacy of a government elected by a dwindling number of supporters becomes increasingly unclear. While the topic of electoral reform is dominated by the debate over proportional representation versus the first-past-the-post system, this paper instead focuses on the legal voting age. I contend that lowering the voting age from 18 to 16 in Canada will create a more equitable, fair, and inclusive electoral system, thus strengthening fundamental democratic values. In this essay, I will discuss how the current system is unfairly excluding youth from participating in decisions that affect their future, why the argument for maintaining the current age is flawed, and how a lower voting age would increase political interest and create a more engaged electorate.</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</span></p> 2020-04-01T21:39:09-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Leonard Patterson The Influence of Media in the Evolution of Canadian Political Parties 2020-04-02T18:57:40-06:00 Madelaine Ware <p>The types of political parties in Canada have drastically changed over the last 150 years, and so too has the dominant forms of media. My research explores the role the media has played in the evolution of the Canadian party system, and attempts to answer the question: How has media contributed to the changes in the party system over time, and how has it facilitated a shift between the types of parties? The federal system has seen elite parties, mass parties and brokerage parties, and the market-oriented party, and my research examines how the media has influenced the way parties communicate their platform and policies with the electorate. As well, I explore the dominant types and modes of media present in each type of party system: from newspapers, to the introduction of broadcast radio, to television, to the recent phenomena of social media. Media influence is the most significant factor in the evolution of the Canadian party system, as it is the primary vehicle for the delivery of information to Canadian citizens.&nbsp;</p> 2020-04-01T21:40:47-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Madelaine Ware The Effects of Modern Data Analytics in Electoral Politics 2020-04-02T18:57:16-06:00 Evan Oddleifson <p>New implementations of data analytical processes in democratic politics deeply affect voter-representative relationships and constitute a substantive challenge to voter agency. This paper examines the effects of social media driven data analytics on voter microtargeting and electoral politics using Cambridge Analytica’s (CA) involvement in the 2016 US Presidential election and the 2010 Trinidad and Tobago General election. It finds that data-driven voter targeting strategies developed by Cambridge Analytica from 2014-2015 are substantially more effective than previously employed strategies. Moreover, these strategies undermine rational choice and consequently impede a country's ability to conduct democratic politics.</p> 2020-04-01T21:43:24-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evan Oddleifson The Subsidiarity Arrangement of Global Governance and Sustainable Development 2020-04-02T19:00:12-06:00 Grace Li <p>In the post-Cold War realm of international relations, the United Nations is "overheating," overburdened by the demands of their expanded operations, in part due to its massive expansion of membership since conception, which has grown to&nbsp;include several developing nations.&nbsp;Specifically, in the realm of international sustainable development, this expansion has drastically increased the scope of UN objectives responsibilities. What we learned from the period of&nbsp;the 1990s, is that the “Washington Consensus” series of macroeconomic policy recommendations anchored around the mantra “stabilize, privatize, and liberalize,” which had failed to adequately instill sustainable long-term growth in Sub-Saharan African, is that this narrow field of market-oriented reforms could not uniformly solve issues of development across the world. Attempts to copy-paste policy reforms from one country often failed, and precisely this observation entails the application of subsidiarity. This paper employs a qualitative methodology to investigate the potential role of a subsidiarity arrangement in easing the burden on the UN system, through a global division of labour across local, regional, and international levels of governance, in studying sustainable development and poverty eradication efforts in sub-Saharan Africa.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Grace Li Legitimacy & Accountability in Government-NGO Relationships. 2020-04-02T19:00:37-06:00 Catrin Thomas <h1>This paper examines the dynamics in relationships between Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and government and how NGOs may seek to effectively influence society and the ways in which it operates within such a relationship and vice versa. NGO-government relationships occur across the globe, in many contexts, and for many reasons. These reasons may include the continued survival of the NGO and/or to consult on complex issues and policies. These alliances are often nuanced with power struggle and conflicts of interest and legitimacy. However, this paper will argue that government-NGO relationships can increase NGO legitimacy, affording them access to traditional structures of the political arena.</h1> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Catrin Thomas China’s Challenge to the Institutions of Global Governance and US Soft Power 2020-04-02T19:01:02-06:00 Evan Oddleifson <p>China stands on the brink of surpassing the US in material capability and is pushing the world towards an increasingly multipolar order. This paper assesses the constraints on the growth of China's non-coercive influence in global politics. However, the constitutional groundings of global economic governance in US ideology and their institutional stickiness make China’s prospects of altering the mandates and structures of the IMF, WB, and WTO highly unlikely. Furthermore, by examining the outcomes of China's lending strategies in developing countries using Angola as a case study, this paper highlights China's inability to supplant growing IMF and WB agreements in developing countries and their failure to institutionalize their influence in partner countries. In sum, this paper concludes that liberal values, and by extension the non-coercive influence of the US, are likely to be upheld during China's rise by the institutions of global governance, namely the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organisation.</p> 2020-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Evan Oddleifson Letter From The Editor 2020-04-02T18:56:50-06:00 Abigail Kohler 2020-04-01T22:37:18-06:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Abigail Kohler