Spaces Between: An Undergraduate Feminist Journal 2014-10-31T11:25:10-06:00 Spaces Between Editorial Collective Open Journal Systems <p><strong id="internal-source-marker_0.6299107407685369"><strong id="internal-source-marker_0.6299107407685369"><em>Spaces Between: An Undergraduate Feminist Journal </em>is pleased to announce that we have published our inaugural issue! </strong><br><br><em>Spaces Between </em>is a student-run, student-written, peer reviewed undergraduate journal. This publication is a forum for undergraduate students to publish their work in Women’s and Gender Studies as well as feminist research and writing within other disciplines. Spaces Between is wide in scope: we welcome research and writing that critically engages with gender, sexuality, race, class, (dis)ability, nation, imperialism, (de)colonization, and globalization.<br></strong></p> <p><strong id="internal-source-marker_0.6299107407685369">Please check our website and facebook page for submission deadlines. If no dates are posted, then we are not currently taking submissions. All submissions must be made during our designated call-for-papers deadlines. Anything submitted before or after designated dates will not be reviewed.<br><br>Contact us with any questions at<br></strong></p> Vulnerability as Strength 2014-10-31T11:25:10-06:00 Danielle Normandeau <p class="p1">This edition asks us and you to reimagine vulnerability as a collective strength – one which we all experience (albeit in many and different ways), one which we may share in common, and one which we can rely upon as communities to affect positive social change. What would such a project look like? The articles contained within this edition, while different in so many ways, answer this question when taken as a whole. Specifically, by presenting the reader with these pieces and thereby exposing the bellies of our undergraduate work, we are vulnerable. However, by sharing our ideas we are also sparking and contributing to important discussions, and engaging the reader to do so as well. This is a collective project, engaged in by both the contributors and the reader. To this end, our vulnerability certainly is a strength.</p> 2014-10-31T11:15:25-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Alberta Man 2011- drawing on canvas 2014-10-31T11:21:49-06:00 Kathryn Dutchak This drawing was part of a body of drawings that explored the development of post-colonial modern day Alberta.  Through historical research of our pioneering past into the fragmented lives of those who came to our province to build what we have today, these images were meant to symbolize the struggle those individuals would have had in our largely patriarchal and imperialistic society. Like the conflicts faced by of many feminists  in our province, the fight for individual identity and autonomy is sometimes a compromise made in order to survive. In this case, the image of a man is used, but his distinguishing characteristics are concealed with the political symbol of Canada, as if he was nothing but a vessel to enact the ideas of others. He is both supporting the power of his country while being crushed under the weight of it, a double edge that continues to be examined by those who have the power to question and change our post-colonial society. 2014-10-25T18:43:38-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Narrating Multiculturalism: Understanding Nationalism through the Canadian Museum for Human Rights 2014-10-31T11:21:50-06:00 Brett Cassady Willes <span>This paper explores the narrative of the Canadian nation as articulated in the discourses in and around the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. I focus on two of the controversies surrounding the CMHR: first, the museum’s recommendation to have a permanent exhibit on the Holocaust and, second, the museum’s occupation of Indigenous land. I argue that national narratives help to produce a specific sort of memorialization, while, at the same time, national narratives are produced through specific forms of memorialization—the two processes are mutually interdependent.</span> 2014-10-25T17:03:16-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Decolonising Motherhood 2014-10-31T11:21:50-06:00 Miranda Leibel This research intends to present an overview of contemporary perinatal health practices among the Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. Using recent case studies of midwifery in two communities, Rankin Inlet and Nunavik, the study presents the perceived successes and shortcomings of community based midwifery programs, as well as reflecting on Canadian government intervention in Inuit family structure. The paper also argues for a restructuring of knowledge paradigms in Canada, especially as they pertain to practices such as birthing and maternal care, which is reflected in the relationship between western scientific medicine, and culturally significant Inuit practices. Rather than denying the importance of western medicine for Inuit perinatal health, this research argues for a balance between varying knowledges. At its heart, this issue is part of the <span class="il">decolonisation</span> process, which requires that Indigenous women’s bodies are not used as a place of reproduction for colonial norms and assumptions. 2014-10-25T18:39:47-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Importance of Whaling in Makah Culture: Self Determination and Cultural Continuity 2014-10-31T11:21:51-06:00 Kenzie Bunting <span>Treaties represent initial instances of legal pluralism between Europeans and Indigenous peoples in what is now known as North America; treaty rights are eternal, yet as societal norms change these rights are drawn into question and their strength tested. This paper examines specifically the Makah Nation, located in Washington state, who signed the Treaty of Neah Bay in 1855, which assured them that in exchange for ceding a large portion of their land they would preserve their right to whale (Article IV, Treaty of Neah Bay). In the last 100 years, non-Indigenous norms have shifted from participating in commercial whaling to largely condemning it because of animal rights beliefs often place the rights of whales above many mammals due to their complex social life (Gupta 1741). These changing norms have led to costly court cases for the Makah and have generally changed legislation and regulations for whaling practices which have impeded the Makah's right to whale. Legal Indigenous environmental rights - meaning the rights of Indigenous peoples to decide how to interact with the environment - act as opportunities for Indigenous peoples to exercise their rights to self-determination and are necessary to the cultural survival of Indigenous peoples. However, in an environment of legal pluralism, different bodies can attempt to undermine Indigenous culture and self-determination by arguing animal rights are of greater import; the Makah not only have their right to whale at stake, but the right to cultural continuity.</span> 2014-10-25T18:43:20-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fuck The Kids! 2014-10-31T11:21:52-06:00 Amina Mohamed <p>Lee Eldeman’s “No Future: Queer Theory and the Death Drive” develops and expands Lacan’s concept of the sinthome in order to examine and polemicize the adversarial relationship between sinthomosexuality and reproductive futurity.  Edelman’s concept of sinthomosexuality combines the Lacanian term sinthome, with homosexuality, understood as a cultural figure opposed to both life and futurity. The focus of Edelman’s polemic is reproductive futurism, in which the child is the focal point, symbolizing the negation of the past and the fulfillment of the future.  Reproductive futurism is the belief that “the child remains the perpetual horizon of every acknowledge politics, the fantasmatic beneficiary of every political intervention” (Edelman 2). This belief is embedded within political discourse, and motivated by the desire to create purposeful futures for our children. Reproductive futurism preserves the absolute privileges of heteronormativity, by casting out the possibility of queer resistance, and rendering any alternative unthinkable (Edelman 2). Within the core of reproductive futurism, the child emblemizes the future by “inscribing the faith that temporal duration will result in the realization of meaning by way of a ‘final signifier’ that will make meaning whole at last” (Edelman 37). </p> 2014-10-25T18:36:05-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Queering Self-Care: Reimagining The Radical Possibilities of Self-Care In Healing From Sexual Assault 2014-10-31T11:21:52-06:00 Emily Dutton <span>Self-care is an umbrella term for the personal strategies, activities and routines used by survivors to manage the trauma of sexual assault. This paper explores the appropriation of self-care practices in neoliberal ‘risk-management’ and ‘prevention’ discourses. By tracing the problematic impact that neoliberalism has had on mainstream social, medical and political narratives surrounding healing from sexual assault, this paper calls for a ‘queering’ of self-care. In theorizing ‘queer self-care’, this paper works to reclaim and redefine self-care in way which challenges pathologized healing narratives, and validates ‘non normative’ means of coping and caring for the self as valuable to the process of healing from sexual assault.</span> 2014-10-25T18:40:48-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Welcome to Womanhood; Check Your Dignity at the Door 2014-10-31T11:21:52-06:00 Bethany Zelent Creative Piece 2014-10-25T18:38:13-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## My Waist Size Does Not Determine My Self Worth 2014-10-31T11:21:53-06:00 Sarah Murphy Art piece 2014-10-31T11:15:51-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Plus Side: Understanding My Fatness 2014-10-31T11:21:53-06:00 Courtney Cliff Creative Piece 2014-10-25T18:41:28-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Abundantly Invisible: Fat Oppression as a Framework for Sexual Violence Against Women 2014-10-31T11:21:53-06:00 Melissa Fabrizio <p>Few fat studies scholars have attempted to identify how obesity stigma and fatphobia play a prominent role in rape culture, and how responses to instances of sexual violence differentiate for fat women. Fat women are caught between a dichotomy of being completely undesirable, or a comical object to be fetishized. The result of this dichotomy is that these women are told to be flattered, or even grateful, for any kind of sexual attention they receive, even if that attention is not consensual. The implications of this devastating social issue become even greater when we consider the reality of rape culture. Instances of sexual violence against fat women are not isolated cases, they are representative of an over-arching fatphobic oppression that is engrained into our contemporary society. When fat women are sexually assaulted, there is a common response that they should be thankful for any kind of sexual act they receive, as they are undesirable and thus no one should be sexually interested in them (with the exception of a ‘bizarre’ fetish). This is problematic not only for completely denying fat women sexual agency, but also for implying that rape is somehow a form of “sexual attention”. These dangerous misconceptions are fueled by a fatphobic rhetoric and inflicts an objectification of fat bodies, by implying they aren’t important enough for the violation of them to even be considered an offense.</p><p>Recent scholarship in the emerging field of fat studies has yet to identify the systemic issues that lie within the sexual assault of fat women and the responses to these incidents of assault. From a feminist perspective, it is possible to identify the necessity of this type of academic work. Attention to the body, body politics, and control of the body is an important focal point for feminist progression. The following paper aims to map fat women’s experiences in instances of sexual assault. Focusing on the synthesis of sexism and fatphobia as two different social issues, fat bodies will be considered from an assault narrative. Gendered fat oppression will be considered as a framework for systemic sexual violence that affects women. As well, the fetishization of fat bodies will be criticized as a means for furthering the objectification and stigmatization of fat women. The male practice of “hogging”, a practice in which men prey on women they deem fat or unattractive to satisfy sexual desires or compete with their peers, will be exposed and analyzed as a key example of this type of fetishization. Beyond the stranger rape narrative, instances of sexual violence perpetrated by the intimate partners of fat women will be explored and identified as a substantial part of the systemic issue of sexual violence. The construction of the dangerous ideologies that surround the embodiment of fat women will be dissected from a feminist perspective while confronting the fat stigma that has created these ideologies. </p><div> </div> 2014-10-25T18:36:56-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reclaiming Gay Male Bodies: Fat Positivity, Sex, and Masculinity in the Bear Community 2014-10-31T11:21:54-06:00 Billy-Ray Belcourt <span>This paper examines the role that the Bear community’s fat positive mantra plays in reconstructing the stereotypical </span><span class="il">gay</span><span> male body. It is argued that Bears reject oppressive body norms legitimized within the mainstream </span><span class="il">gay</span><span> community by renegotiating experiences of masculinity and sexuality by eroticizing stockier </span><span class="il">gay</span><span> men. In order to expand on the limited scholarly analysis of the Bear subculture as a sexual and social microcosm, this paper defines the Bear community and their body politics outside the glorification of slenderness in the larger </span><span class="il">gay</span><span>community. The fat inclusive environment fostered among this social group is then explored, which allows Bear bodies to exist within a sexual culture not fixated on penetrative intercourse and within an “intermediary” form of masculinity that rejects heteronormative and essentialist gender binaries. These distinct aspects of the Bear subculture ultimately encourage the redefinition of maleness and homosexuality and the radical </span><span class="il">reclaiming</span><span> of </span><span class="il">gay</span><span> male bodies outside the boundaries of a heteropatriarchal system.</span> 2014-10-25T18:41:52-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mutations of Gender, Genre and the British Home in "The Servant" and "Orlando" 2014-10-31T11:21:55-06:00 Caroline Ford <span>This paper explores the way constructions and transformation of both gender and genre are transformed and defamiliarized in order to draw attention to their inherently constructed nature. Although both gender and genre typically attempt to present themselves as inherent and natural they are in actuality as crafted and culturally mediated forms of expression. Joseph Losey's </span><em>The Servant </em><span>(1963) and Sally Potter's </span><em>Orlando</em><span> (1992) both</span><span lang="en-US"> align themselves with well-established genres of British national cinema—</span><span lang="en-US"><em>The Servant</em></span><span lang="en-US"> with classical realism and</span><span lang="en-US"><em>Orlando</em></span><span lang="en-US"> with heritage costume drama—while also disrupting these conventions, drawing on other genres to highlight the performative nature of gender and genre.</span><span>Through an examination of the transformation of British home, I</span><span lang="en-US"> demonstrate that by destabilizing firmly held British ideals these films signal the artificiality of the strictly defined boxes of gender and genre upon which British identity is founded.</span> 2014-10-25T18:37:34-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Who Was Really #StandingWithWendy? A content analysis of Canadian and American online news coverage of Senator Wendy Davis’s filibuster of Senate Bill 5 in the Texas Legislature 2014-10-31T11:21:55-06:00 Blair Wade <span>On June 25th, 2013, Democrat Senator Wendy Davis from Texas staged a 13 hour filibuster in a special legislative session as a final effort to deny the passage of Senate Bill 5, legislation which would severely restrict abortion policies in the state. In the precedent setting event, she took both a literal and figurative stand for women’s rights and gained international media attention in the process. My research performed a content analysis of Canadian and American online news coverage of this political event. Each article was examined for: visibility of Senator Davis; gender stereotypical descriptive techniques such as gendered mediation, personalization, and sexualisation; legitimizing or delegitimizing coverage regarding the abortion policies proposed in Senate Bill 5; and supportive or unsupportive tone towards Senator Davis’s actions. The results demonstrate that Canadian news coverage presented a greater prevalence of attitudes of gender equality in comparison to the American coverage, which is consistent with prevailing social and legal standards in each country. Additionally, the results reveal the ways in which gendered mediation, which has been traditionally used as a delegitimizing tactic against femininity in the political arena, can be subverted and used in support of female politicians and issues.</span> 2014-10-25T18:42:56-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "Come, The Longest Sword Carries Her”: Constructions of Masculinity in Aphra Behn’s The Rover 2014-10-31T11:21:56-06:00 Willow White <span>The plays of Aphra Behn have become the focus of a great deal of contemporary feminist criticism on account of Behn’s status as English literature’s first professional female writer and the complexity of the gender politics expressed in her plays. While Behn’s </span><em>The Rover </em><span>(1677)</span><em> </em><span>has been celebrated as a popular libertine play of the Restoration – along with William Wycherley’s </span><em>The Country Wife </em><span>(1675) and George Etherege’s </span><em>The Man of Mode </em><span>(1676) – it has simultaneously been praised by feminist critics for circumventing patriarchal social structures. This essay will consider the ways in which Behn manages to write a successful Restoration comedy, complete with the conventions of the time, while concurrently critiquing the libertine masculinity that was highly celebrated in the Restoration period. First, Behn places her male characters in notably compromised states of authority and strips them of many conventional sources of power. Secondly, Male sexual aggression, specifically rape, is heavily ironized</span><em> </em><span>throughout the play. Thirdly, Behn’s male protagonists are often hypocritical regarding the libertine code of values to which they are supposed to adhere. Thus, in </span><em>The Rover</em><span>,</span><em> </em><span>Behn carefully exposes libertine masculinity in such a way as to criticize, not libertinism as an aesthetic, but the contradictions and flaws of the libertine ethos that promotes male superiority and dominance.</span> 2014-10-25T18:42:13-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Acknowledgments 2014-10-31T11:21:57-06:00 Spaces Between <p class="FreeFormB">This journal is the product of a collective effort. A great deal of work went into its publication, for which we are all very grateful. First, thank you to Melanie Lintott for creating the cover image that so perfectly encapsulates the themes this edition explores. Second, thank you to all of the contributors for their thought-provoking work, and for engaging as a collective by helping to edit this year’s contributions. Third, thank you to the journal’s editorial board, consisting of Erin Gallagher-Cohoon, Emily Dutton, Kristina Belyea and Brett Willes, for their thoughtful feedback and participation. Fourth, thank you to our senior editors, Alysha Anderson, Danielle Normandeau, and Roxanne Runyon for going above and beyond their editorial duties. Finally, thank you to the Women and Gender Studies Department at the University of Alberta for making this journal possible, and for the constant encouragement and support provided by its academic and support staff. </p> 2014-10-31T00:36:58-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##