Do Tripartite Approaches to Reform of Services for First Nations Make a Difference? A Study of Three Sectors.


  • Jodi Bruhn Stratéjuste Canada



Public Policy, Governance, Administration, Education Policy, Social Policy, First Nations, Indigenous, Canada


First Nations in Canada have developed tripartite arrangements with federal and provincial governments in a range of service areas. Some scholars classify the arrangements as “mere” devolution; others debate whether they mark an emerging, more collaborative Crown/Indigenous relationship. There is also the pressing question of impact. Do tripartite service arrangements promote positive changes for affected First Nations and their members? 

This paper examines the character of these arrangements, as well as their impact on both services and relationships among the signatories. Analysing regional tripartite arrangements concluded over the past decade in First Nations policing, child welfare, and primary/secondary education, it then draws on evaluations, and scholarly and other “grey” literature to identify common challenges and successes. Throughout, the paper seeks to discern potential lessons from the past decade for negotiating and implementing tripartite service arrangements in the future.   

Author Biography

Jodi Bruhn, Stratéjuste Canada

Jodi Bruhn is a published policy researcher, author and facilitator specializing in governance and indigenous/Crown relations. She is director of Stratéjuste Canada, a consulting firm based in Ottawa/Gatineau.