Discrimination in the Workplace in Canada

An Intersectional Approach


  • Parveen Nangia Laurentian University
  • Twinkle Arora


Discrimination, Intersectional discrimination, Workplace, Job application, Canada, Designated groups, Marginal groups


This study examines discrimination in the workplace in Canada and explores the intersection of marginalized groups. It uses data from the General Social Survey 2016, which collected information from 19,609 non-institutionalized individuals. Results show that 17 percent of the job applicants and 9 percent of the workers felt discriminated against in the workplace during the 12 months before the survey. Data analysis indicates that a person’s identification with two marginalized groups increases the chances of discrimination and augments it further with three marginalized identities. However, the incremental effect of four or more marginalized groups is difficult to examine with this dataset due to the depleting sample size with the inclusion of every new group. Results from the logistic regression illustrate that the intersection of two, three, or four selected disadvantaged groups increases workplace discrimination significantly, thus supporting the theory of intersectionality. However, this perspective does not work for some combinations of marginalized groups.




Author Biographies

Parveen Nangia, Laurentian University

Parveen Nangia is a Full Professor at Laurentian University. He has a multidisciplinary background in geography, demography, and sociology. He has conducted research on a number of social, demographic, health, and regional issues; more specifically his research focuses on migration, social inequality, discrimination, and mental health. He has several books, monographs, book chapters, research papers, and research reports to his credit. His research work has been published in several countries, namely Canada, USA, France, England, Netherlands, Italy, India, Brazil, Mexico, and Ghana.

Twinkle Arora

Twinkle Arora is working as a Clinical Research Coordinator at Princess Margaret Research Institute/Hospital.  She has a background in Mental Health Studies and Counselling Psychology. She is pursuing Ph.D. at Laurentian University and her doctoral dissertation focuses on fan-fiction and its effect on sense of belonging.