Exploring Library Activities, Learning Spaces, and Challenges Encountered Towards the Establishment of a Learning Commons
Objectives – This study was conducted to determine the library activities, preferred learning spaces, and challenges encountered by the students of Mountain Province State Polytechnic College (MPSPC) Library, Philippines. Specifically, it sought to answer the following problems: 1) What are the library activities of MPSPC students?; 2) What are the preferred learning spaces in terms of a) physical environment and b) virtual environment?; and 3) What are the challenges associated with library learning activities encountered by the MPSPC students? The study then will be used to explore the feasibility of proposing a learning commons.
Methods – This study used a descriptive research method to determine the library activities, learning spaces, and challenges encountered by MPSPC students in the Philippines. It made use of a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Problem statement number 1 dealt with the library activities of MPSPC students. Problem statement number 2 dealt with the preferred learning spaces. Data were gathered from 500 graduate and undergraduate students from a total of 3,015 enrolled during the first semester of the SY 2019-2020 using a purposive random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and rank were used.
Results – The most frequent library learning activities performed by the MPSPC students were doing assignments, using reference books, searching/browsing printed materials, reviewing notes, and writing. Students’ least frequent library activities were surfing the web, using the computer, using e-resources, eating while reading/writing, and sleeping. The most preferred physical learning spaces were a makerspace, group study spaces, quiet study rooms, and individual study spaces (individual study carrels), while the most preferred virtual learning spaces were computer workstations, interactive learning spaces, video viewing stations, and internet cafés. The overall challenges encountered by MPSPC students were insufficient learning spaces, poor internet connection, inability to find documents or books needed, lack of reading area, lack of printing or photocopying service, lack of professional books, and lack of e-resources. The least challenges encountered by MPSPC students included very high library fees, poor ventilation, poor lighting facility in the designated area, uncomfortable furniture, and lack of staff’s kindness.
Conclusion – The MPSPC students perform various educationally purposeful library activities, which are generally engaging and support the library's mission. Students vary in their needs of physical and virtual learning environments. Both of these learning spaces are in demand among students, which are the key components of the learning commons. Also, they specified the need for adequate learning spaces to support their various library learning activities. The findings serve as the basis for crafting a project proposal to establish a learning commons tailored to MPSPC students’ library activities and preferred learning spaces, with consideration for the challenges encountered by students, to support their learning and academic success.
Alawani, A. A., Senteni, A., & Singh, A. D. (2016). An investigation about the usage and impact of digital video for learning. In J. Novotná & A. Jančařík (Eds.), Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on e-Learning: ECEL 2016 (pp. 1–9). Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited.
Arenson, M. (2013). The impact of a student-designed learning commons on student perceptions and use of the high school library. Retrieved from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/THE-IMPACT-OF-A-STUDENT-DESIGNED-LEARNING-COMMONS-Arenson/83e55c93e23d913fca7565cdb210e40411c5019e
Bailin, K. (2011). Changes in academic library space: A case study at the University of New South Wales. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 42(4), 342–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/00048623.2011.10722245
Barner, K. (2011). The library is a growing organism: Ranganathan's fifth law of library science and the academic library in the digital era" (2011). Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal), 548. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/548
Barton, C. (2018). Transforming an academic library to a learning commons model: Strategies for success [Doctoral dissertation, Concordia University Irvine]. CUI Digital Repository. http://hdl.handle.net/11414/3385
Bennett, S. (2003). Libraries designed for learning. Council on Library and Information Resources. https://www.clir.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/pub122web.pdf
Bieraugel, M., & Neill, S. (2017). Ascending Bloom's pyramid: Fostering student creativity and innovation in academic library spaces. College & Research Libraries, 78(1), 35–52. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.78.1.35
Blummer, B., & Kenton, J. M. (2017). Learning commons in academic libraries: Discussing themes in the literature from 2001 to the present. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 23(4), 329–352. https://doi.org/10.1080/13614533.2017.1366925
Brown-Sica, M., Sobel, K., & Rogers, E. (2010). Participatory action research in learning commons design planning. New Library World, 111(7/8), 302–319. https://doi.org/10.1108/03074801011059939
Cabfilan, N. (2012). Customers’ satisfaction on the circulation, reference, online and instruction services at Benguet State University Main Library [Master’s thesis, Saint Mary’s University (Philippines)].
Choy, F. C., & Goh, S. N. (2016). A framework for planning academic library spaces. Library Management, 37(1/2), 13–28. https://doi.org/10.1108/LM-01-2016-0001
Cicchetti, R. (2015). Transitioning a high school library to a learning commons: Avoiding the tragedy of the commons [Doctoral dissertation, Northeastern University]. Northeastern University Library Digital Repository Service. https://doi.org/10.17760/D20193587
Elkington, S., & Bligh, B. (2019). Future learning spaces: Space, technology and pedagogy. Advance HE. https://telearn.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02266834
Eurostat. (2016). Classification of learning activities (CLA): Manual. https://doi.org/10.2785/874604
Flaspohler, M. (2012). Engaging first-year students in meaningful library research: A practical guide for teaching faculty. Chandos.
Freeman, G. T. (2005). The library as place: Changes in learning patterns, collections, technology, and use. Council on Library and Information Resources. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/publ129/freeman.html
Gstalder, S. H. (2017). Understanding library space planning [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania]. University of Pennsylvania Libraries ScholarlyCommons. https://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI10289537/
Guion, D. (2012, March 14). Library staff: The paraprofessional. Reading, Writing, Research. https://www.allpurposeguru.com/2012/03/library-staff-the-paraprofessional/
Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U., & Shaughnessy, R. J. (2015). Effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on students’ test scores. PLoS ONE 10(8), e0136165. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136165
Head, A. J. (2016). Planning and designing academic library learning spaces: Expert perspectives of architects, librarians, and library consultants. Project Information Literacy Research Institute. https://projectinfolit.org/publications/library-space-study/
Holeton, R. (2020). Toward Inclusive Learning Spaces: Physiological, Cognitive, and Cultural Inclusion and the Learning Space Rating System. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/2/toward-inclusive-learning-spaces
Holland, B. (2015, January 14). 21st-century libraries: The learning commons. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/blog/21st-century-libraries-learning-commons-beth-holland
Hughes, H. (2010). International students’ experiences of university libraries and librarians. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 41. https://doi:10.1080/00048623.2010.10721446
Iroaganachi, M. A., & Ilogho, J. E. (2012). Utilization of reference books by students: A case study of Covenant University, Nigeria. Chinese Librarianship: An International Electronic Journal, 34, 48–56. http://www.white-clouds.com/iclc/cliej/cl34II.pdf
Keating, S., & Gabb, R. (2005). Putting learning into the learning commons: A literature review. Post-compulsory Education Centre, Victoria University. https://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/94
Khan, S. (2020). Impact of learning spaces on student success. Retrieved from https://www.edtechreview.in/trends-insights/insights/impact-of-learning-spaces-on-student-success/
King, J. G. (2016). Extended and experimenting: Library learning commons service strategy and sustainability. Library Management, 37(4/5), 265–274. https://doi.org/10.1108/LM-04-2016-0028
Kumah, C. H. (2015). A comparative study of use of the library and the internet as sources of information by graduate students in the University of Ghana. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1298/
Lankes, R. D. (2016). Expect more: Demanding better libraries for today's complex world (2nd ed.). http://dx.doi.org/10.26153/tsw/13962
Li, L. H., Wu, F., & Su, B. (2018). Impacts of library space on learning satisfaction – An empirical study of university library design in Guangzhou, China. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 44(6), 724–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2018.10.003
Maidabino, A. A., & Zainab, A. N. (2011). Collection security management at university libraries: Assessment of its implementation status. Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, 16(1), 15–33. https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1301/1301.5385.pdf
Martin, A. (2008). Digital literacy and the “digital society.” In C. Lankshear, & M. Knobel (Eds.), Digital literacies: Concepts, policies, and practices (pp. 151–176). Peter Lang.
Matthews, K. E., Andrews, V., & Adams, P. (2011). Social learning spaces and student engagement. Higher Education Research and Development, 30(2), 105–120. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2010.512629
McCrary, Q. D. (2017). Small library research: Using qualitative and user-oriented research to transform a traditional library into an information commons. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 12(1), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.18438/B8863F
McCunn, L. J., & Gifford, R. (2015). Teachers’ reactions to learning commons in secondary schools. Journal of Library Administration, 55(6), 435–458. https://doi.org/10.1080/01930826.2015.1054760
McDonald, C. A. (2011). The library transformed into learning commons: A look at the library of the future [Master’s thesis, University of Central Missouri]. James C. Kirkpatrick Library Digital Repository. https://ucmo.alma.exlibrisgroup.com/view/delivery/01UCMO_INST/1284617640005571
McLeod, S. (2015). “It’s not just about signing out books!”: From library to library learning commons: A catalyst for change [Master’s thesis, University of Victoria]. UVicSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/1828/6315
McMullen, S. (2008). US academic libraries: Today's learning commons model (PEB Exchange 2008/04). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://www.oecd.org/unitedstates/40051347.pdf
Mihailidis, P., & Diggs, V. (2010). From information reserve to media literacy learning commons: Revisiting the 21st century library as the home for media literacy education. Public Library Quarterly, 29(4), 279–292. https://doi.org/10.1080/01616846.2010.525389
Mohanty, S. (2002). Physical comfort in library study environments: Observations in three undergraduate settings [Master’s thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill]. Carolina Digital Repository. https://doi.org/10.17615/mne6-v039
Munro, B., & Philps, P. (2008). A collection of importance: The role of selection in academic libraries. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 39(3), 149–170. http://doi.org/10.1080/00048623.2008.10721347
Oblinger, D. G. (Ed.). (2006). Learning spaces. EDUCAUSE. https://www.educause.edu/research-and-publications/books/learning-spaces
Paretta, L. T., & Catalano, A. (2013). What students really do in the library: An observational study. The Reference Librarian, 54(2), 157–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/02763877.2013.755033
Peterson, N. K. (2013). The developing role of the university library as a student learning center: Implications to the interior spaces within [Master’s thesis, Iowa State University]. Iowa State University Digital Repository. https://doi.org/10.31274/etd-180810-3678
Pressley, L. (2017). Charting a clear course: A state of the state of the learning commons. In D. M. Mueller (Ed.), At the helm: Leading transformation: The proceedings of the ACRL 2017 Conference, March 22–25, 2017, Baltimore, Maryland (pp. 112–119). Association of College and Research Libraries. https://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/conferences/confsandpreconfs/2017/ChartingaClearCourse.pdf
Qayyum Ch., A., Hina, Q. A., & Abid, U. (2017). An empirical investigation of problems and issues being faced by the students while using the libraries in University of the Punjab, Lahore. Bulletin of Education and Research, 39(2), 225–238. http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/ier/PDF-FILES/17_39_2_17.pdf
Rawal, J. (2014). Libraries of the future: Learning commons: A case study of a state university in California [Master’s thesis, Humboldt State University]. The California State University ScholarWorks. http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/134872
Roberts, R. L. (2007). The evolving landscape of the learning commons. Library Review, 56(9), 803–810. https://doi.org/10.1108/00242530710831257
Shrestha, N. (2008). A study on student’s use of library resources and self-efficacy [Master’s thesis, Tribhuvan University]. E-LIS. http://eprints.rclis.org/22623/
Singh, S., & Wadhwa, J. (2006). Impact of computer workstation design on health of the users. Journal of Human Ecology, 20(3), 165–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/09709274.2006.11905922
Somerville, M. M., & Harlan, S. (2008). From Information Commons to Learning Commons and learning spaces: An evolutionary context. In B. Schader (Ed.), Learning commons: Evolution and collaborative essentials (pp. 1–36). Chandos. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-84334-312-7.50001-1
Spencer, M. E. (2007). The state-of-the-art: NCSU Libraries Learning Commons. Reference Services Review, 35(2), 310–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00907320710749218
Sriram, B., & Rajev, M. K. G. (2014). Impact of academic library services on user satisfaction: Case study of Sur University College, Sultanate of Oman. DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, 34(2), 140–146. https://publications.drdo.gov.in/ojs/index.php/djlit/article/view/4499
Stripling, B. (2008). Inquiry: Inquiring minds want to know. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 25(1), 50–52. https://www.teachingbooks.net/content/InquiringMindsWantToKnow-Stripling.pdf
Suarez, D. (2007). What students do when they study in the library: Using ethnographic methods to observe student behavior. Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 8(3). https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/ejasljournal/83/
Tanhueco-Tumapon, T. (2017, August 18). 21st-century academic libraries. The Manila Times. https://www.manilatimes.net/2017/08/18/opinion/analysis/21st-century-academic-libraries/345157/
Turner, A., Welch, B., & Reynolds, S. (2013). Learning spaces in academic libraries – A review of the evolving trends. Australian Academic and Research Libraries, 44(4), 226–234. https://doi.org/10.1080/00048623.2013.857383
Vercellotti, M. L. (2018). Do interactive learning spaces increase student achievement? A comparison of classroom context. Active Learning in Higher Education, 19(3), 197–210. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417735606
Watstein, S. B., & Mitchell, E. (2006). Do libraries matter? Reference Services Review, 34(2), 181–184. https://doi.org/10.1108/00907320610669416
Waxman, L., Clemons, S., Banning, J., & McKelfresh, D. (2007). The library as place: Providing students with opportunities for socialization, relaxation, and restoration. New Library World, 108(9/10), 424–434. https://doi.org/10.1108/03074800710823953
Yebowaah, F. A., & Plockey, F. D. D. (2017). Awareness and use of electronic resources in university libraries: A case study of University for Development Studies Library. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1562/
Yebowaah, F. A. (2018). Internet use and its effect on senior high school students in Wa Municipality of Ghana. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/1817
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Maryjul Beneyat-Dulagan, David Cabonero
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The Creative Commons-Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike License 4.0 International applies to all works published by Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. Authors will retain copyright of the work.